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Watch these two videos and the one companion article. They are about three highly publicized incidents where actions by employees forced each company to take a drastic and unusual action. As you watch, think about the ethics of what is happening. Then in 1-2 sentences per number, answer the questions. Spelling and grammar count. There must be at least one text reference (page/chapter/edition).There is no right or wrong answer. There is only a complete answer that is supported by a complete reference to the text.https://www.nytimes.com/2019/03/14/us/college-admissions-scandal-questions.html?module=inline (Links to an external site.)https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/15/health/evolus-wrinkles-toxin-jeuveau.html?action=click&module=MoreInSection&pgtype=Article®ion=Footer&contentCollection=Health (Links to an external site.)https://www.foxbusiness.com/sports/katelyn-ohashi-ucla-ncaa-rules-pay (Links to an external site.)1. Do you think the children students who were admitted to these elite schools based on their parents’ bribery should be allowed to stay in that college? Why?2. Should the doctors disclose this event to anyone and, if so, to whom? Why?3. Read and watch the video on Katelyn Ohashi. Who do you see exhibiting unethical behavior? Explain?4. Think about the Approaches to Ethical Reasoning, Duty-Based Ethics and Outcome Based Ethics. Which approach do you think the doctors should use when handling their attendance at the NewTox event? Which approach should the management of USC use? Which approach should have been used by the unethical party in the Ohashi case? Explain?CONSIDER: https://www.thrillist.com/news/nation/krispy-kreme…UNIT 1 The Law and Our Legal System
social problems. The idea is that business controls so much of a country’s wealth and
power that it should use that wealth and power in socially beneficial ways:
sibility Report that outlines its environmental strategy (including its attempts to
reduce carbon dioxide emissions). The report also discusses its commitment to
human rights awareness.
effectiveness if it is treated as a way of doing business rather than as a special
Away of Doing Business Corporate social responsibility attains its maximum
program. The most successful activities are relevant and significant to the
corporation’s stakeholders.
EXAMPLE 2.7 Derek Industries is one of the world’s largest diversified metals
and
mining companies. As a part of its business decision making, it invested more than
$150 million in social projects involving health care, infrastructure, and education
around the world. At the same time, it invested more than $300 million in envi-
ronmental projects, including the rehabilitation of native species in the Amazon
River Valley.
2-6 Business Ethics and Social Media
Today, social media affect many areas of daily life, including the business world,
As a result, businesses now face unique ethical issues with respect to all social
media platforms. In particular, social media raise ethical questions in business hir-
ing decisions.
To gain be ter insight.ato a job candidate n pagers ask for nrofessional refer-
ences fron fc n lo
fr
the candidate. Employers are likely to also conduct Internet searches to discover
more about job candidate Often, an online sea h lead man furs
to several
links rega bo our USO cia media the pro-
spective candidate’s postings, photos, videos, blogs, and tweets.
In addition, some employers may decide that a candidate with no social media
presence is behind the times and is not a good employee choice. Some would con-
sider this type of employer behavior to be unethical as well.
Highlighting the Point
Penny applies for a sales clerk position at Fair City Market, a convenience store
in rural Wyoming. Craig, Fair City’s owner, interviews Penny and is seriously
considering her for the position. After the interview, Craig does an online search
on Penny. The search results reveal that Penny is politically active in an effort
to ban off-road vehicles in local wilderness areas. Craig is an off-road enthusiast.
Should Craig consider Penny’s activism when deciding to hire her? No. Many people
believe that judging a job candidate based on what she or he does outside of the
workplace is unethical. Penny’s personal opinions and activities should not factor
into Craig’s hiring decision.
2-7 Business Ethics on a Global Level
LE
Frequent conflicts in ethics arise between foreign and U.S. businesspersons. In cer-
tain countries, the consumption of alcohol and specific foods is forbidden for reli-
gious reasons. Under such circumstances, it would be thoughtless and imprudent
for a visiting U.S. businessperson to invite a local business contact out for a drink.
DUH.
dus are sent with
Uata by false pretenses. Violators may be
parts.
Highlighting the Point
Franklin
Systems offers a warranty program to authorized resellers of Franklin
George Taylor and Robert Singer devise a scheme to intentionally defraud Franklin by
using this reseller program to obtain replacement parts to which they are not enti-
tled. The two men send numerous e-mails and Internet service requests to Franklin to
convince the company to ship them new parts via commercial carriers.
Does Taylor and Singer’s use of e-mail and the Internet constitute mail and wire
fraud? Yes. They sent e-mails with the intent to obtain
goods by false pretenses-that
is, goods to which they were not entitled. They have committed mail and wire fraud.
7-3f Bribery
Basically, three types of bribery are considered crimes: bribery of public officials,
commercial bribery, and bribery of foreign officials.
Bribery of Public Officials The attempt to influence a public official to act in a way
that serves a private interest is a crime. The bribe can be anything the recipient
considers to be valuable. The commission of the crime occurs when the bribe is
17
CHAPTER 2 Ethics in Business
2-4a Laws Regulating Business
Today’s business firms are subject to extensive government regulation. Nearly every
action a firm undertakes-from going into business, to hiring and firing personnel,
to selling products in the marketplace-is subject to statutory law as well as regula-
tions issued by administrative agencies.
Determining whether a planned action is legal thus requires that decision makers
keep abreast of the law. Ignorance of the law will not excuse a business owner or
manager from liability for violating a statute or regulation. Normally, large busi-
ness firms have attorneys on their staffs to assist them in making key decisions.
Small firms must also seek legal advice before making important business decisions
because the consequences of just one violation may be costly.
2-4b “Gray Areas” in the Law
In many situations, business firms can predict with a fair amount of certainty
whether a given action would be legal. In some situations, though, the legality
of a particular action may be less clear. These “gray areas” in the law make
it difficult to predict with certainty how a court may apply a given law to a
particular action.
Uncertainties concerning how particular laws may apply to specific factual situ-
ations have been compounded in the cyber age. The widespread use of the Internet
has given rise to legal and ethical questions in circumstances that never existed
before.
In short, business decision makers need to proceed with caution and evaluate an
action and its consequences from an ethical perspective. Generally, if a company
can demonstrate that it acted in good faith and responsibly in the circumstances,
it has a better chance of successfully defending its action.
Highlighting the Point
Airway Airlines makes an online forum available to its pilots so that they can
exchange ideas and information. Some Airway pilots publish on the forum a series
of harassing, gender-based, false messages about Beth Jones, one of Airway’s female
pilots.
Could Airway be liable to Jones for any harm caused by these messages? Yes. An
online forum can be considered similar to a company bulletin board, which is part
of a workplace. If Airway knows about the messages and does nothing to stop them,
the airline can be perceived as sending Jones the statement that the harassment
is acceptable. If the airline does not know about the postings or if it does attempt
to stop them, however, it can argue that it is acting in good faith.

2-5 Approaches to Ethical Reasoning
MY
Each individual, when faced with an ethical dilemma, engages in ethical reasoning,
In this process, the individual links his or her moral convictions or ethical standards
to the particular situation at hand. Businesspersons do likewise when making deci-
sions with ethical implications.
Ethical reasoning relating to business traditionally has been characterized by two LEARNING OUTCOME 3
fundamental approaches. One approach defines ethical behavior in terms of duty, Compare duty-based ethics
which also implies certain rights. The other approach determines what is ethical in and utilitarian ethics.
terms of the consequences, or outcomes, of any given action.
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CHAPTER 7 Business Crimes
87
7-3d Embezzlement
When a person who is entrusted with another person’s property or money fraudu-
lently takes it over, embezzlement occurs
. Typically
, this involves an employee who embezalcunemer
cally take the property from the possession of another,
and it is not robbery, because
no force or fear is used.
steals money. Embezzlement is not larceny, because the wrongdoer does not physi- The fraudulent taking of money
or other property by a person to
whom it has been entrusted.
Highlighting the Point
While hauling a load of refrigerators from San Diego to New York in a truck owned
by National Appliance Company, Fred tries to sell some of the refrigerators. To dis-
play them, Fred breaks the truck’s seals, enters the cargo compartment, and opens
two refrigerator cartons. No one buys them, and they never leave the truck. Fred is
arrested and charged with embezzlement. Fred claims that there are no grounds for
the charge, because he never took anything off the truck.
Does the charge of embezzlement apply when property is not physically removed
from the owner’s possession? Yes. If a person has control over the property of
another and has the intent of converting the goods to his or her own use, then
embezzlement occurs. By trying to sell the refrigerators and keep the proceeds,
Fred exercised control over the property with the intent to convert it to his own use.
7-3e Mail and Wire Fraud
A potent weapon against white-collar criminals is the federal laws that prohibit
mail fraud and wire fraud. Under these acts, it is a federal crime to devise a scheme
that uses the U.S. mail, commercial carriers (such as FedEx), or wire (including
telegraph, telephone, television, and the Internet) with the intent to defraud the
public. These laws are often applied, for instance, when e-mailed ads are sent with
the intent to obtain money or personal data by false pretenses. Violators may be
fined or imprisoned or both.
Highlighting the Point
Franklin Systems offers a warranty program to authorized resellers of Franklin parts.
George Taylor and Robert Singer devise a scheme to intentionally defraud Franklin by
using this reseller program to obtain replacement parts to which they are not enti-
tled. The two men send numerous e-mails and Internet service requests to Franklin to
convince the company to ship them new parts via commercial carriers.
Does Taylor and Singer’s use of e-mail and the Internet constitute mail and wire
fraud? Yes. They sent e-mails with the intent to obtain goods by false pretenses-that
is, goods to which they were not entitled. They have committed mail and wire fraud.
-3f Bribery
sically, three types of bribery are considered crimes: bribery of public officials,
mmercial bribery, and bribery of foreign officials.
bery of Public Officials The attempt to influence a public official to act in a way
t serves a private interest is a crime. The bribe can be anything the recipient
siders to be valuable. The commission of the crime occurs when the bribe is

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