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Attached is the grading rubric, I just want someone to go through and make sure everything is good and adjust as necesseryIntroduction
In order to fabricate useful shapes and objects, the solid materials are assembled by
various joining techniques. There is a variety of joining processes in which two or more solid
materials can be joined, such as mechanical in which bolts and rivets used or thermal processes
such as welding. The type of material used and the application in which the assembly will be
used to determine the joining process must be considered to increase the service life, efficiency,
and strength of the assembly. Arc welding is one of the most extensively used processes of
joining solid parts together. By definition, arc welding is a fusion- welding process in which
coalescence of the metals is achieved by the heat of an electric arc between an electrode and the
base metal [1]. The generation of an electric arc is achieved by converting current to heat, as
shown in the basic configuration in Figure 1 below.
Figure.1 basic configuration and electrical circuit of an arc-welding process [1]
The main objective of this lab is to allow the students to analyze, examine, and compare
the different arc welding techniques through demonstration and practice. There are many types
of basic arc welding techniques, such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas metal arc
welding (GMAW), and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Each process has a unique apparatus
and a technique to use. Another objective of this lab is to familiarize students with precautions to
take during the aforementioned arc welding processes. This experiment also illustrates the
Arc Welding Processes
specific steps that must be followed for each technique, along with the hazards to consider for
safety sake.
Moreover, students must be aware that arc welding might be dangerous and can cause
injuries if the process has done without following the safety rules or taken precautions. One of
the severe and common injuries that a welder can encounter is Arc Eye. It is a flash burn caused
by Ultraviolet and infrared radiation emitted from the welding arc [2]. Using the welding hood
helps to minimize the risks of having such injuries.
The scope of the experiment consists of the three different types of the basic arc welding
process, shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten
arc welding (GTAW). However, this lab concentrates only on the three types mentioned before.
There are plenty of arc welding processes types used in the industry, such as Flux-cored arc
welding (FCAW) and Submerged arc welding (SAW).
Test and Evaluation
The first part of the lab is to practice the shielded metal arc welding. The SMAW uses a
consumable electrode, which consists of a steel coated with chemicals to provide flux (to prevent
oxidization) and shielding. This electrode is connected to a power supply to provide sufficient
power, which is converted to heat to melt the consumable electrode. This process usually
performed manually, and it is widespread in construction applications. The second part was to
practice the gas metal arc welding process, which is similar to the SMAW since the process
requires a consumable electrode. The GMAW process shielding is accomplished by flooding the
arc with a mixture of inert gases such as argon or an active gas such as carbon dioxide. The
Arc Welding Processes
selection of the shielding gases depends on the base material being welded. The shielding gas
mixture consists of 75% Argon and 15% carbon dioxide and is stored in tanks with a flow
controlling switch. CO2 is used due to its second nature among the common shielding gases,
whereas argon because it provides stronger penetration ability [3]. Finally, GMAW is an ideal
process for making multiple welding passes on the same joint. The third and last part was about
introducing the gas tungsten arc welding process to the students. This process is very similar to
the before-mentioned processes; however, the tungsten electrode is non-consumable. The
tungsten electrode helps to deliver current to the welding arc, and it is an excellent electrode
since the tungsten has a high melting point of approximately 3415 °C [4]. The shielding gases
used for this process typically include inert gases such as helium. Moreover, the GTAW process
has applicability to almost all of the metals.
In order to start the welding process, safety rules and precautions must be considered to
execute the process safely.
The safety rules include the following:

Wearing a non-flammable coat.

Wearing a non-flammable and isothermal gloves

Using the goggles and the welding hood to minimize radiation exposure

Turning the power supply off while not using or while doing dry runs

Avoid direct contact with the work/base metal after welding and allowing it to cool
Arc Welding Processes
Equipment and Materials

Welding Unit (SP135 PLUS and PC-300)

Protective Clothes
o
Isothermal gloves
o
Non-flammable coat

Consumable wire steel wire

Steel plates

Aluminum

Shielding gas

GMAW: 75% Argon, 25% Carbon Dioxide

GTAW: 100% Argon

Wire brush

Tongs

Welding hood

Goggles

Tungsten tips
Procedures
Stick Welding
a. Clean the steel plates to be joined by wire brush
b. Practice striking the arc, speed and length control
c. Practice a couple of dry runs before turning the power supply on
d. Set the welding current and voltage based on the material to be joined
o High current low voltage
Arc Welding Processes
e. Turn the power supply on
o The power supplied is used to heat up the filler material until melting to
join the parts together

Strike the arc and make tacks at both ends to hold the metal pieces together during the
welding process

Lay beads along the joint maintaining proper speed and arc length

Clean the welded zone with a brush
GMAW:
a. Clean the steel plates to be joined by wire brush
b. Practice holding the gun and maintaining a constant speed and length control
c. Practice a couple of dry runs before turning the power supply on
d. Set the welding current and voltage based on the material to be joined
e. Turn the shielding gas on
f. Turn the power supply on
g. Lay beads along the joint maintaining proper speed, geometry and arc length
GTAW:
a. Clean the steel plates to be joined by wire brush
b. Practice pressing on the pedal
o The pedal control equipment is controlled by the welder’s foot
o This pedal controls the gas flow, the more the welder press on the pedal,
the more gas is released
c. Practice holding the filler rod and moving along the joint
d. Practice a couple of dry runs before turning the power supply on
Arc Welding Processes
e. Set the welding current and voltage based on the material to be joined
f. Turn the shielding gas on
g. Press on the pedal to start the heat generation
h. Hold the tip just above the base metal
i. Maintain a short arc length and prevent the contact between the electrode and the
workpiece
j. Heat the base metal and melt some filler material on the workpiece
k. Move a constant length along the joint to shape the weld and complete the joining
process
l. Repeat the previous two steps until the joint is complete
Findings and Interpretations
The advantages of GMAW over stick welding is that the GMAW is a clean process that
does not include any slags or spatters. In addition, wires are generally less expensive than most
of the electrode rods making the GMAW the best economical choice. Also, GMAW works better
with thin metals and can weld metal as thin as 24 gauge (0.0239″). Furthermore, welding is never
interrupted by the need to stop working in order to use a new electrode stick [4].
Electrodes used for arc welding are divided into two distinct categories, consumable and
non-consumable. The main difference between the two is that the consumable electrodes in both
wire and rod forms are consumed by the arc during the welding processes and added to the joint
as a filler material. Non-consumable electrodes require a filler metal supplied from a separate
wire to fill up gaps between the metals being welded, which is what we observe in GTAW [1].
Arc Welding Processes
Despite the advantages of the arc welding process, there are some limitations that should
be acknowledged for each process mentioned before. Stick welding is considered to be slow, so
it takes time. In addition, it is a complicated process that requires substantial training and a
welder skill to master [5]. The GMAW equipment is complex and costs higher than other
welding equipment. In addition, shielding gas refills, electrodes, and tip replacements can add
up. Also, before the GMAW process, the workpiece has to be clear of dust and dirt in order to
get a good weld, so the workpiece preparation might take some time [6]. Finally, the GTAW
process requires a welder skill and experience since it is a physically complicated process. In
addition, it is not suitable for thick materials applications [7].
Although GTAW does not require the consumption of metal wires, it uses filler material
instead, which is melted due to the high temperatures of the hose head. When comparing steel
with aluminum Tungsten Inert Gas welding (TIG), the main controlling parameter in these two
cases is the type of current to be used, whether an alternating current (AC) or a direct current
(DC). Usually, DC current Is used for ferrous metal welding such as steel, whereas the AC is
used for Aluminum [8].
Unlike GMAW, GTAW process works very well with thinner parts as mentioned
previously. Using the GTAW process on thicker workpieces of metal can create problems such
as heat stress cracking. As noted previously, since the GMAW uses filler material, this process is
better for heavy-duty welding work where thicker workpieces are being joined. However, the
GTAW process directly joins two workpieces of metal without any filler material, making this
process more cost-effective since it eliminates the need for welding supplies [9].
There are plenty of stick electrodes types exist, but the most common sticks used
nowadays are the mild steel electrodes which fall into American Welding Society (AWS)
Arc Welding Processes
classification A5.1. The electrodes used for this lab are 6011 and 7018. The 6011 produces a
penetrating arc that cuts through corroded metals. On the other hand, the 7018 electrodes contain
a thick flux (to prevent oxidization) with a high powder content, and it is considered as one of
the easiest electrodes to use. The properties of some of the most commonly used electrodes are
shown in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Common Electrode Properties [10]
In the GMAW and GTAW processes, it is essential to adjust the composition of the
shielding gas used, which may influence the heat disturbance to the weld. Many types of gases
and mixtures can be used in GMAW and GTAW processes. For example, carbon steel and low
steel requires Argon and Carbon Dioxide mixture (About 25% CO2 and 75% Argon). Also, if
the workpiece was made of Aluminum, 100% Argon is used. However, if the aluminum
Arc Welding Processes
workpiece was thicker than half of an inch, Helium may be added to the mix to increase the heat
penetration [12]. Moreover, carbon dioxide is used because it is cost-effective compared to other
shielding gases, while Argon is used because it provides a narrow penetration capability.
Conclusion
There are several options for arc welding processes provided by the industry. Each type
of arc welding process has its advantages, disadvantages, and limitations to consider. It is
essential to know how the welding processes differ in order to choose the most applicable
welding process for the desired application. This lab did not demonstrate the procedures of all
the basic types of arc welding process only. Besides, it has provided the necessary precaution the
student should consider when practicing any welding process. For future recommendations, the
students should be taught and shown the effects and the comparisons of using different shielding
gas mixtures for GMAW and GTAW, or even the use of single pure gas. Also, after practicing
the three types of basic arc welding, it would be great if the student is allowed to join two parts
as an assembly instead of just practicing how to form the weld.
References
[1]
Groover, Mikell P. Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials, Processes, and
Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2020.
Arc Welding Processes
[2]
Steel, LeJeune, and LeJeune Steel. “Common Welding Injuries and How to Avoid
Them.” LeJeune Steel Blog, October 23, 2015.
https://www.lejeunesteel.com/blog/common-welding-injuries-and-how-to-avoid-them/
[3]
“MIG Welding Shielding Gas Basics.” bernard. Accessed February 26, 2020.
https://www.bernardwelds.com/mig-welding-shielding-gas-basicsp152080#.XlhZDpNKg1L.
[4]
“How a TIG Welder Works and When to TIG Weld.” Miller Electric. Accessed February
26, 2020. https://www.millerwelds.com/resources/article-library/tig-it-how-a-tig-welderworks-and-when-to-tig-weld.
[5]
Anderson, Dan. “Stick versus MIG.” Agweb. Accessed February 26, 2020.
https://www.agweb.com/article/stick_versus_mig.
[6]
“The Pros and Cons of Stick Welding.” Complete custom engine rebuild and testing shop
for street rods, antiques, classics. Serving Philadelphia, Reading, Lancaster, Harrisburg,
Allentown, PA, NJ and beyond. Accessed February 26, 2020.
https://www.vanindustriesinc.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-stick-welding.
[7]
“The Pros & Cons of MIG Welding.” Baker’s Gas & Welding Supplies, Inc. Accessed
February 26, 2020. https://bakersgas.com/pages/the-pros-cons-of-mig-welding.
[8]
Advisor, Welders. “TIG vs. MIG: The Advantages And The Disadvantages.” Medium.
Medium, May 15, 2017. https://medium.com/@weldersadvisor/tig-vs-mig-theadvantages-and-the-disadvantages-79e838ba6417.
[9]
Mason, Adam. “AC vs DC Welding With TIG (Aluminum) And Stick (6011 Rods).”
WeldingPros.Net. Adam, January 28, 2020. https://weldingpros.net/ac-vs-dc-welding/.
[10]
Steel, Marlin. “How to Compare and Choose Between MIG and TIG Welding.” Custom
Wire Products and Metal Fabrication. Accessed February 26, 2020.
https://www.marlinwire.com/blog/how-to-compare-and-choose-between-mig-and-tigwelding.
[11]
“Discovering the 7018, 6013, 6011 and 6010 Welding Rod Sizes ( Chart!).” WeldingHelmet Pros, December 18, 2016. https://weldinghelmetpros.com/welding-rod-sizes.
[12]
Grisham, Marcus. “Gas Types Used In Welding: MIG Vs. TIG.” CromWeld.com.
CromWeld, January 17, 2020. https://www.cromweld.com/welding-gas-type
Student
Instructor
Section
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Steinhauer
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Introduction
Content
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Test & Evaluation
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Readability (Style, Format, and Grammar)
Findings
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Interpretation & Results
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Conclusions & Recommendations
Content
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References & Appendix
Proper citation of references thoughout report
Proper format used in reference scetion
All appendix sections were referenced in the body of the report and given context
Total percent for the folowing topics
Content
Organization of Visuals
Readability (Style, Format, and Grammar)
Proper citation of references thoughout report
Proper format used in reference scetion
All appendix sections were referenced in the body of the report and given context
Technical Score
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