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The first file is the essay that be correct. The second file is the PDF form of the essay AND WITH THE CORRECTION INSTRUCTION. The third essay is the editorial about this essay.1. for the essay, the important things need to be improved is: -research analysis -get the introduce, integrate, explain, ad properly cite all of the quotes. -focus on one specific policy and give the detail of the outcomes (you may check the editorial to find some idea, the outcomes in the editorial is more clear, it is helpful to use) -word choice -CLARITY!!!!! -TRANSITION WORDS BETWEEN EACH PARAGRAPHS AND SENTENCES. – Focus on grammar, have to make sentence clear! – make “this, them, it” words clear (do not use those words) – do not have words repetitions2. some facts in the “Literature review” need to be changed, you can check the “editorial” to get some idea3. for the “instruction” part need to give an specific policy that need to be improved.4. for the “solution” part, need to give detail of the solution.(may check the “editorial” to get some ideas, but DO NOT COPY FROM EDITORIAL!!!)5. for the statistic or the examples that used in the essay, need to give a clear cite.Han 1
Fuhong Han
Writing 105PD
Professor Robert Samuels
1/22/2020
Essay #1
Chinese Domestic Violence
Introduction
The Chinese always believed that the family ugliness should not be publicised, and it is
difficult for officials to break housework. Due to these attitudes, most people in society have
always been that domestic violence is a domestic matter; that is, other people have no right to
interfere. Related surveys show that in China, there are 270 million families, and up to 30%
of them have experienced domestic violence. For each year, 90,000 women commit suicide
due to domestic violence. Every 7.4 seconds in China, a woman is subjected to domestic
violence(Parish et al., 2004, 174). Also, domestic violence has long been a widespread
problem throughout the world. The reason why domestic violence is of concern to us is that it
not only affects families and individuals but also threatens social stability. Opposing
domestic violence should be the common responsibility of the entire society and the
responsibility of a country (Cao et al., 2014, 683). Fortunately, in recent years, domestic
violence has become one of the focuses of Chinese society. The mass media’s reports on
domestic violence have changed from secretive to bold disclosure, hoping to deter the
perpetrators. However, this is not the answer to a fundamental solution to domestic violence.
Nonetheless, as China currently does not have a comprehensive legal system to intervene in
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domestic violence legally, most of the perpetrators are fearless, while the victims have no
place to ask for help. The declarative provisions of the law have only an empty slogan and
lack the effective protection of legitimate rights and interests of victims (Wu, Guo & Qu,
2000, 117). Besides, minimizing the harm and cost of domestic violence, and enacting antidomestic violence laws is imminent. Next, I will prove the importance and feasibility of the
violence problem in China from three aspects.
Correct instruction: (For this paragraph, have to point out which policy need to be improved
or have issues. The specific one!)
Literature Review
On November 15, 2018, Yuya, a well-known Chinese beauty blogger, bravely posted
a video on Weibo with only a few words in the text: “I have been violent”(Yuya, 2019). In
the video, Yuya tells after five domestic violence incidents; she chose to use video to deliver
it to the public. Furthermore, Yuya was dragged out of the elevator by her perpetrators, the
video camera recorded the domestic violence so that she could get the “evidence” required by
the police; this allowed Yuya to have enough evidence to speak out. In that video, we get the
informations that the perpetrator had three wives, and each had suffered the same domestic
violence. This incident caused an uproar and pushed the issue of domestic violence back into
the sight of the Chinese public.
As a result, the Yuya incident, it can be seen that the first four domestic violence
cases could not be obtained, because even if the perpetrators had suffered internal bleeding,
Chinese law would only judge it as “minor injuries” and characterize the incident as
“domestic” violence. “Family” means that the law does not protect victims, but rather tends to
protect “family integrity.” Except for Yuya, The perpetrator’s first three wives did not report
to the police after being subjected to domestic violence but chose to forgive and divorce. This
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is because they do not have as many fans as Yuya can bring this matter to the attention of
society. The perpetrator’s first three wives, like most women in China, were just ordinary
housewives; they knew that in China, the police would not punish the perpetrators or isolate
them. Moreover, if the police report, it will even cause the anger of the perpetrators, making
the perpetrators worsen, causing physical harm to them, and even to their families.
The famous Chinese journalist Chai said in “Kan Jian”, “The way to solve this in the
village is to tie her husband to a tree and beat him, but go home Later, he would intensify
revenge, and others would not dare to intervene again. However, the women’s federation was
off at five o’clock, and she could only take the child to hide in the toilet near the house for a
night”(Chai, 2012, p.378). There is no strict law regulating the behavior of the perpetrators,
or there is not enough enforcement power in the countryside or even the city, resulting in no
substantial effect even if the perpetrators are criticized on a moral level. Therefore, such thin
legal constraints cannot allow Chinese women to endure under the coercion of their fists and
knives.
The United States has shown many successful aspects of ending domestic violence
against women, which should be embraced by China. According to statistics, domestic
violence of women and girls has been reduced over the past few years due to heightened
laws. 10% of women have reported domestic violence compared to 24% in 1985. Less
serious physical abuse, such as having been slapped or pulled on the hair, is reported to have
happened at least once in the last 12 months for 5% of both women and men (Han, 2007, 23).
Furthermore, the most plausible explanation for this is quite simply that physical strength is a
big factor in serious violence (but not in mild violence), women are thus equally likely to be
saved from domestic violence with their partners. Meanwhile, it is also possible that there is
higher under-reporting among the women in most States since violence against women has
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been made a significant taboo. Overall, only 15% of the serious violence was perpetrated by
women in the past few years. This suggests that women are less likely to encounter domestic
violence in the United States (Hou et al., 92). China should as much try to embrace the
United States steps in ending gender violence.
Unlike the United States, domestic violence in China is quite prevalent. The
Domestic Violence Law enacted on March 2016 stated, “People’s government institutions at
the county level or above with responsibility for efforts on women and children, are
responsible for organizing, coordinating, guiding, supervising and driving relevant
departments’ efforts to counter domestic violence” (Cao et al., 2014, 692). Nevertheless, this
law has been unproductive even after a series of amendments. Domestic abuse has remained
ordinary in China, and it has been ignored for a painfully long time. Just as Kim Lee said that
it is a great victory to see Chinese women finally speaking out on the subject. There is no
doubt about the severity of domestic abuse in China, but people also strongly suspect the
veracity of the statistics. It may be true that half of the country’s women ever suffered from
domestic abuse, but few suffered from it constantly. According to statistics, only one-third of
Chinese woman has been abused physically; nevertheless, 57% suffered mental abuse (Huo
et al., 2011, 85). This shows the Domestic Violence Law has been failing. Despite China
taking some significant steps to preserve women’s rights and successfully making great
progress since the Reform and Open, there still exist many problems. Domestic violence has
become more prevalent, with a lot of women suffer since their husbands can be brutal
sometimes, making physical injury to them. In many areas, this is actually a fairly recent
thing. The main reason is that the laws in China are quite different with regard to due process
and interference in any type of violent situation or even non-violent ones, like helping an
injured man can result in unwanted accusations and/or misunderstandings. In the U.S., this
would simply result in a frivolous lawsuit here and there and would get thrown out of court
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99.999% of the time. In China, there are no trials (Wu, Guo & Qu, 2005, 118). Leaders just
sit you two in a room and have you settled. The outcome depends almost wholly on how
much influence one side has with the authorities as well as their negotiating skills and very
little to do with fact-checking, evidence, jury/judge, and legal precedence. So even if
individuals were just trying to help, there is a potential that they can still end up paying up the
ear to stay out of jail.
Solution
Chinese laws on domestic violence need to be proved through a formulation of an
effective policy. The suggested policy is the Domestic Violence Policy. This policy contains
several recommendations with the amendment of Chinese laws on domestic violence being
the main one. Furthermore, this policy will start by figuring out what the underlying reasons
for people committing violence. Chinese people do not commit violence completely out of
the void, often have psychological problems of some kind, or had a specific kind of
upbringing (Wu, Guo & Qu, 2005, 120). Moreover, this can be a sense of entitlement, lack of
empathy, or simply anger management issues (or a wide variety of other stuff). Another thing
that Domestic violence policy will focus on making more strict laws against domestic
violence in China. At least in domestic violence cases, there has been evidence to suggest that
victims often deliberately provoke their attackers, which does not make the violence justified,
but if the government wants to prevent violence, they have to consider that factor. As a result,
reasons make someone try to provoke someone for so long that the person ends up
committing violence. To this end, outside of domestic violence, the policy will solve violence
problems in general by identifying each kind of issue; attempt to find some more generalized
reasons.
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The Domestic Violence Policy also pays attention to women as mothers and natural
caregivers. Besides, they are strong but physically gentle, and they do not choose aggression
naturally. Any kind of harm is usually a violation (done against their will or consent) doing
lasting emotional, physical, and mental damage (Parish et al., 2004, 178). To preserve the
sanctity and highlight the plight of women, there are many more grassroots organizations
working on women’s and girls’ issues. Also, women are also more willing to come out in the
open and discuss their problems and help other women in similar situations. Men have
controlled positions of power both at home and outside (Han, 2007, 23). Moreover, the
majority of the world follows patriarchal systems. Most often, their harm is by choice or
situation and not a violation or force. Men do not come open, or fewer men join in on
discussions on violations of sexual nature. However, if more men spoke up, then there would
be more problem solving their issues. Violence in any form needs to be condemned, rooted
out of Chinese society. It is important for all violence to be highlighted, discussed, and
resolved (Berry, 2000, 5). Violence directly or indirectly affects children (encompasses the
male and female), which are the future. Thus, the day each Chinese citizen will realize that
they are all equal; they all feel the same despite their physical or emotional differences. They
will be living in a world full of respect for each other. They should also be focused more on
Violence against women than any other form of violence except for the people who are trying
to discredit and play down the whole issue (Xingjuan, 2004, 183). Also, by following these
solutions, China will probably end domestic violence that has prevailed as well as pay
attention to the incomplete laws.
Bibliography
Chai, Jing. Kan Jian. Guang Xi Shi Fan Da Xue Chu Ban She, 2013.
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Cao, Y., Yang, S., Wang, G., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Sociodemographic characteristics
of domestic violence in China: A population case-control study. Journal of
interpersonal violence, 29(4), 683-706.
Dempsey, M. M. (2009). Prosecuting domestic violence: A philosophical analysis.
Han, S. L. (2007). China’s new domestic violence law: Keeping victims out of harm’s
way? Politics, 11, 25.
Hou, J., Yu, L., Ting, S. M. R., Sze, Y. T., & Fang, X. (2011). The status and
characteristics of couple violence in China. Journal of Family Violence, 26(2),
81-92.
Parish, W. L., Wang, T., Laumann, E. O., Pan, S., & Luo, Y. (2004). Intimate partner
violence in China: national prevalence, risk factors, and associated health
problems. International family planning perspectives, 174-181.
Wu, J., Guo, S., & Qu, C. (2005). Domestic violence against women seeking induced
abortion in China. Contraception, 72(2), 117-121.
Xingjuan, W. (2004). Domestic violence in China. Holding up half the sky: Chinese
women past, present, and future (edited by Tao Jie, Zheng Bijun, and Shirley
L. Mow, 179-192.
Yuya. “YUYAMIKA’s Weibo.” Sina Visitor System, 25 Nov. 2019,
www.weibo.com/u/2675783603?is_hot=1
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Fuhong Han
Professor Robert Samuels
Writing 105PD
2/12/2020
Editorial
China is Failing Victims of Domestic Violence
We can make women’s life better.
Hissing, roaring, slapping, rubbing the knife, hammering the door, tearing the hair,
and dragging on the ground. How would it feel if your partner can brutally hurt you
over and over again?
This is how millions of women in China live in untold suffering when subjected to
violence by close family members because of a weak domestic violence law.
Domestic violence is any form of abuse by an intimate partner or a family member
against another. Traditionally, beating a woman was considered as an appropriate way
of disciplining her since the household was considered the husband’s domain. Today
roughly 25% of Chinese women in marriages or relationships have experiences some
form of domestic violence, according to a recent report by the All-China Women’s
Federation. If we consider the factor in girls and unmarried women, the figures could
be higher.
The law guarding victims against domestic violence is the Domestic
Violence(DV) Law that was passed in March 2016. However, a recent report by
Equality shows that the enforcement of the Domestic Violence law in China was
mostly ineffective. From the report of CCTV, in the City of Jinan out of 142 cases of
domestic violence, only 14 were given the nod for divorce simply because the accused
admitted to the crime.
A closer look at the Domestic Violence law enacted in China shows that domestic
violence against a spouse or family member is considered a civil infraction but not
necessarily a criminal offense. This shows that despite the progress made by enacting
the DV law, its effectiveness is still limited. Why is it not effective? You may ask. It
is because there is no paradigm shift in perspective concerning domestic violence.
It is even more worrying that a civil infraction can be handled not only by government
agencies but also by non-governmental organizations or individuals. This shows a
stark difference in the way the crime is handled when compared to a crime that is
given focus by the criminal justice system alone to exact punishment. Moreover, the
authority to enforce the law has been spread across local and regional governments,
thus watering down the effectiveness of the DV. The criminal justice system does not
have the awareness to identify domestic violence or when to act.
Cultural attitudes continue to derail efforts to combat this unwarranted crime against
scared victims. This is because civil cases involving domestic violence are given a
wide berth and considered family matters that should be resolved privately.
Law enforcement officials are unable to enforce laws; they even lack training about
collecting and storing the evidence for the case to persuade the courts. At times law
enforcement advises the victims against filing a report on the abuse and rather urges
them to return home and solve matters with their partners and family members.
Judicial officers decline to hear domestic violence cases or recommend meditation
efforts. Clearly, there is an overreliance on mediation in China, and this has affected
the delivery of justice for victims.
The consequences of domestic violence are devastating. The effects include death,
disability, depression, substance abuse, homelessness, broken families, and
psychological trauma.
It is high time that the Chinese government recognizes the need to review its domestic
violence laws to enable them to criminalize domestic abuse cases and impose harsher
penalties against the perpetrators. According to Jeremy Daum, a lawyer at the China
Yale Law center, additional measures need to be enacted to strengthen the existing
law.
The Domestic Violence law should be amended to sanction more severe action, and
law enforcement will be trained to deal with domestic abuse cases. The DV law can
be an effective tool that can shift public opinion against perpetrators if the
government and non-governmental organizations can collaborate to counter the
cultural bias against domestic violence. The cultural habits will indeed change with
time if the law is effective and clear.
One of the ways to strengthen the DV law is to expand the scope of the definition of
what amounts to domestic violence such as rape in marriages, stalking, sexual
harassment, and other nonphysical forms. The law should allow victims to be allowed
to report the cases officially without being subdued or coerced. This will ensure a first
responsibility system is in place to ensure cases are followed up. The communities
need to be sensitized on the need to root out domestic violence to create a paradigm
shift about domestic violence.
The criminal justice system should be trained on the best approaches to enforcing the
new law. For example, law enforcement needs training on how to collect evidence
and deliver convictions. This makes it easy for Judges to take up the cases and give
out strong convictions against perpetrators.
There is hope that a more effective policy can be enacted to consider domestic policy
a crime rather than a civil issue. Is it not better for victims to finally get the justice
they dearly deserve? We can make women’s life better.

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