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1-Find the attachment2-Respond to each post with a FULL Single-space paragraph3-A reliable reference for each paragraph4-Respond DO NOT summarize.5-Very important; you have to include your thoughts6-APA style7-At least 150 words each1234567-
Find the attachment
Respond to each post with a FULL Single-space paragraph
A reliable reference for each paragraph
Respond DO NOT summarize.
Very important; you have to include your thoughts
APA style
At least 150 words each
Course: Healthcare Management
The assignment was:
“Based on your readings and experience, comment on the effectiveness of HVAs. Are
they too subjective? How would you approach developing an HVA?
Develop an HVA for a hospital in your community. Provide details on the hospital
(bed numbers, location, ect.). List the top 5 hazards. Defend your answers.“
Note from Professor: I want to continue to challenge you in your DB responses, go deeper, provide
examples to support your position.
In my opinion, HVAs can be broad but I would not necessarily dictate them to be too
subjective. To appropriately develop an HVA, the author would need to have a good
understanding of the facility itself as well as the surrounding environment. The author
would need to utilize data from previous years to understand what hazards have
occurred and what the common issues are. Additionally, they need to consider hazards
that while may not have occurred in the previous years but could still pose a huge risk to
the facility. For example, in Southern California, a major or damaging earthquake may
not have occurred to pose a risk to the facility but the possibility of the hazard should
not be discounted due to the unpredictability of the nature of earthquakes.
Kaiser Permanente Baldwin Park Medical Center
Number of Beds: 254
Location: 1011 Baldwin Park Blvd, Baldwin Park, CA 91706
Top 5 hazards: Flood, Earthquake, Fire, Power Outage, HVAC Failure
Although it does not rain very often in Southern California, when it does flooding is a
common occurrence. The infrastructure in Southern California is not capable of
adequately handling stormwater which as a result can cause floods. These instances of
flooding may block roads and restrict access to areas.
Earthquakes are a constant threat to Southern California. While most of the
earthquakes that do occur are not noticeable, large magnitude earthquakes can cause a
lot of destruction. Additionally, there is also the ongoing assumption that the “big one”
will occur, which is expected to be greater than a magnitude 8 earthquake.
The causes of hospital fires are typically associated with cooking incidents. Fires can
also be caused by electrical malfunctions and HVAC issues. From 2012 to 2014, an
estimated 5,700 medical facility fires were reported to the fire department.
Power Outages can pose a serious hazard and can potentially put many patients at risk.
With the availability of generators, the hazards of a power outage can be mitigated but it
is important to regularly ensure that generators are functioning as they should. Power
outages can be sudden and they can occur for a variety of reasons. There is also no
hard estimate as to when power can be restored depending on the cause of the outage.
As mentioned before, HVACs can pose a fire risk. HVACs need to be properly
maintained to ensure that they are functioning properly. HVAC issues can be dangerous
and if they are left alone, they can cause serious health issues. One common issue with
HVACs is moisture buildup or leaks. These issues can lead to the growth of mold and it
is crucial to find and fix the issue so that patients are not put at risk.
Since the 9/11 disaster, health care organizations have been urged to create stronger and
more significant hazard management. The Joint Commission is encouraging emergency
management as a way of improving the response system. An effective disaster mitigation plan is
the main foundation for proper disaster response and management. Hazard vulnerability analysis
is effective in the health care system such that it enables the proper development of a disaster
mitigation plan (Yi, George, Paul, & Lin, 2010). Hazard vulnerability analysis enables health
care organizations to assess the condition of their current disaster management and use the
results to improve on the gaps available. Additionally, hazard vulnerability analysis is a way of
considering both local priorities as well as federal and state priorities. Assessing the condition of
the response system of an organization to identify the loops in the emergency response system
enables healthcare organizations to look deeper into the local and federal priorities.
Hazard vulnerability analysis should be subjective such that they should address specific
vulnerability aspects. For instance, HVAs should assess specific aspects such as disaster
management for hurricanes, earthquakes, or floods (Campbell, Trockman, & Walker, 2011). The
basis of the HVAs should be an assessment of the environment where they are carried out. The
coastal areas should have disaster management and response system for hurricanes. Joint
Commission provides resources for developing specific disaster management systems (Du, Ding,
Li, & Cao, 2015).
Mercy hospital in Philadelphia has one hundred and fifty-seven beds, and it is a
community-based healthcare organization with the main purpose of providing quality health care
services to the Southwest and West Philadelphia. The hospital is located in Philadelphia, United
States, and it operates for twenty-four hours. It is mainly a community teaching hospital, and it,
therefore, does not have a proper disaster management system (“MCMC – Mercy Philadelphia,”
2019). Since Philadelphia is dealing with extreme heat, the main disaster management and the
emergency system should be based on response against wildfires. This is because high
temperatures can lead to wildfire, which is a threat to both human life and property.
The five main disasters can include tsunami, floods, storms, earthquakes, and hurricanes.
Hazard vulnerability analysis is conducted to address these issues such that the condition of the
environment is surveyed to identify the possible disasters. Other vulnerabilities may include
terrorist attacks, biological disasters, industrial disasters such as pollution and human-made
disasters (Fares et al., 2014). These disasters can cause economic and health damage and should,
therefore, be addressed.
The assignment was:
“Imagine yourself as either homeless or incarcerated. Would you be accepting or oppositional to
receiving aid during a disaster, including evacuation, sheltering and social services? Why?”
Disasters can dramatically cause adverse impacts among populations and infrastructures.
When major disasters strike, they will likely kill many people and destroy the majority of the
residential buildings in the affected area. Therefore, during disasters, people living in homes will
likely be scared of whether their homes will handle these incidents or will be damaged. Since
these people are inside their homes and afraid, imagine how disasters can be frightening for those
who are homeless. Dreyer (2018) states that homeless people require such unique preparedness
planning for disasters. It is thus vital that governmental and non-governmental organizations
establish well-developed plans that focus on supporting homeless people before, during, and
after disasters.
I imagine that if I were a homeless person, I would face many obstacles to survive when
such natural disasters strike the community in which I live with no homes to hide at even during
severe weather conditions. I thus believe that if I were homeless, I would be one of the most
vulnerable persons for disasters. I would be overwhelmed and exhausted while looking for a
place to protect myself. Hence, I would definitely accept receiving such aid services, including
sheltering, since I would be at higher risk if I preferred staying at a vulnerable location during
In the U.S, for instance, homeless people have been one of the most affected populations
by disasters since they are likely the first vulnerable population for these incidents (Fogel, 2017).
Natural disasters have dramatically impacted on homeless people in the U.S. by killing and
injuring them and even leading to public health issues due to the aftermath of these disasters. To
support and help homeless people during, before, and after disasters, governmental and nongovernmental organizations should consider improving their preparedness planning for this
group of people.
Undoubtedly, being homeless doesn’t make any difference either in disasters or
in normal situations. Homeless are the significant group can live with disasters, guess
why? They are fully coped to live in streets, in open spaces, and unsafe places.
Homeless knows where and how to deal with any climate changes, so the hard life has
given him the best skills to be survived in the worst scenarios. Despite the previous
theory, the National Coalition for the Homeless considered that the homeless are
vulnerable as another group of the community, pregnant as an example, in natural
disasters. According to National Coalition for the Homeless, “ these individuals often
do not have the resources to evacuate and thus remove themselves from the path of a
severe weather-related event, or even to collect needed supplies.”
If I am homeless, I definitely will accept any support from any organization
during the disasters. Being in a shelter supplied with water and food will give me
some hope to have an equalized life with another member of the community. Also,
these shelters are providing medical care, so it is a good opportunity to get that service
at this particular time. The only issue I would hate to bringing out is the people’s bad
stereotypes that expected to be present in such of sheltering case. Being segregated in
sheltering would impact me emotionally and will pose a sort of depression and
inequality feelings.
Course: Logistic Management for Disasters
The assignment was:
“Points of Distribution (POD) can be extremely beneficial in disaster situations. They
can also create concerns during an operation in regards to transporting supplies, safety,
security and finding an optimum site for establishing a POD.
Pick one area, either beneficial or detrimental; briefly explain how that would affect a
disaster operation, and how you would improve upon the process.”
Points of distribution (PODs) are places that enhance access to emergency supplies as a
result of a disaster (FEMA). The need or demand for a POD depends on a lack of infrastructure
that ensures the distribution of food and other supplies is uninterrupted. A POD is a useful
approach that is beneficial in several ways. First, it identifies a potential location such that the site
for the collection of supplies has a high population density (Bealt & Mansouri, 2018). The
convenience of accessing the site is necessary such that people do not have to cross a busy street
to access the supplies.
Secondly, a POD facilitates disaster operations by considering the size of the structure such
that it guarantees a smooth distribution of supplies. The consideration of the impact of the disaster
is also influential in setting up a POD to ascertain the quantity for each person. Thirdly, a POD
renders the exit and entrance points significant for successful disaster operations (FEMA). The
plan does not only guarantee organized movements but also ensures the effectiveness and
efficiency of service. A POD also uses adequate staffing as a means to facilitate disaster operations.
Notably, staffing is a significant aspect in the same way as finding the right location. Since
volunteers are expected whenever there is a disaster, a POD is prepared to manage them to ensure
access to supplies is not disrupted.
A POD is beneficial to disaster operations, mainly through proper planning, developed
strategy as well as coordinated effort to ensure the community access lifesaving commodities
efficiently and quickly (Bealt et al., 2018). The whole process involving PODs depends on
identifying the public need, the capability of infrastructure, and the available resources. Although
the disaster may create limitations associated with communication, personnel, transportation, or
equipment, and efficient POD involves teamwork.
A team comprising a manager, support, and loading teams enhances operations during a
disaster operation (FEMA). A manager oversees the entire POD operation, supply chain flow,
reporting, and safety alongside supply and staffing levels. The support team unloads the bulk
supplies and resupplies besides maintaining staff operations. The loading team is responsible for
loading operations and ensures the safe movements of vehicles through the line. Safety is vital at
the POD site, and the ability to frequently inspect the work area and report incidents and injuries
immediately guarantee exceptional disaster operations.
Point of distribution POD is establishing after a disaster to provide people with
the essentials such as water, food, among others. (HCEMHS, 2015). PODs usually
continue providing services until normal life status is restored. Moreover, PODs can
operate as small clinics that offer treatment, medicine, and vaccination in case
disasters (CDC, n.d). However, I believe the process of aid distribution will affect
positively or negatively on the response. Thus, the number of PODs and their location
is crucial to ensure people are receiving what they need to survive.
In the aftermath of a disaster, people’s need for aid will rapidly increase. There
must be a quick establishment of PODs in different areas where they are enough to
meet people’s demands (Jaller &Veras, n.d). Regardless of the aid’s size, if there was
a failure in establishing enough number of PODs, the aid will be useless. For instance,
after the Haiti earthquake in 2010, the amount of humanitarian aid was huge but
experienced significant delays, and many people were suffering (Jaller &Veras, n.d).
In fact, the United Nations took about fourteen days to establish enough POD, and
that was the root cause for the delay of distributing aid (Jaller &Veras, n.d). That leads
us to think about the location where the PODs should be established to facilitate the
process of receive and deliver aid.
It is possible to predict when and where a natural disaster is going to hit a
specific city, but it is impossible to predict what kind of damage is going to leave. In
other words, we will never know what streets will be destroyed and what will out of
the damaged area. Finding an excellent location to be a POD is a challenge.
According to FRMA (n.d), many aspects must be considered when establishing POD.
For example, population density in the selected area, easy entry, and exit for vehicles
of different sizes to deliver and receive aid, the size of traffic PODs might cause in the
area, the staff, among many other considerations.
Finally, establishing an effective POD is possible, but the process is very
complicated (FEMA). Although there was a large number of humanitarian aid after
the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, the delay of establishing enough number of PODs to
arrange to deliver that aid has caused unnecessary suffering to thousands of people for
days (Jaller &Veras, n.d). As an emergency manager, I would have teams in different
places at the same time to assess the location based on specific considerations so we
can establish many PODs as soon as possible. One strategy that I would follow is to
find the schools, assess the damage if some were damaged, and use it as a POD
(Boudhoum, 2013). In my opinion, this strategy will help to solve both problems,
having many POD in a different good location.

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