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Human Service History Project: The goal of this project is to help students connect how current services offered for your target issue have been informed by historical contexts and the cultural values that have existed throughout time. You are responsible for creating an integrated visual/text project summarizing the history of human services for a particular issue, from at least the 1800s to current practices. This project can be delivered in a range of formats, such as a website, blog, a video, a PowerPoint, a graphic novel or other appealing visual/text formats. Please feel free to be creative! Keep in mind that you will not be formally presenting your project and that all the information should be easily conveyed to a single viewer without you present. Be sure to have your project available in a way that will allow you to present it to peers in an informal manner.A few projects will also be presented to the whole class, but this is an optional experience.Example on what i need and rubric are all attachedHuman Service History Project: The goal of this project is to help students connect how current
services offered for your target issue have been informed by historical contexts and the cultural values
that have existed throughout time. You are responsible for creating an integrated visual/text project
summarizing the history of human services for a particular issue, from at least the 1800s to current
practices. This project can be delivered in a range of formats, such as a website, blog, a video, a
PowerPoint, a graphic novel or other appealing visual/text formats. Please feel free to be creative! Ask
the instructor or a GE if you are interested in using a format not listed above. Keep in mind that you will
not be formally presenting your project and that all the information should be easily conveyed to a
single viewer without you present. Be sure to have your project available in a way that will allow you to
present it to peers in an informal manner. A few projects will also be presented to the whole class, but
this is an optional experience.
Final Project Rubric – 70 Points
Assignment Element
Historical Timeline: Contains at least 10 historical events listed chronologically
Historical Time Periods: In-depth (at least one slide each) look at
services/approaches for your issue in at least 4 different time periods, including
current approaches.
Ecological Factors: Addresses at least 3 examples of bidirectional influences at
different levels of the ecological model that have impacted this issue over
time. This may include bidirectional influences such as how societal beliefs at
the time (macrosystem) influenced the services available (exosystem) and vice
versa, or how advocates for the issue created change in legislation (exosystem)
surrounding the issue. You must correctly identify which level of the ecological
model each factor corresponds to. You may include this information as you are
listing historical events, or discuss it separately.
Influential People/Groups/Agencies: Contains at least 3 different
people/group/agencies that influenced your issue across various time periods
Current Agencies: Contains at least 2 different local (preferable) and/or national
agencies that target your issue.
References: Your project should contain at least 7 references cited throughout
and with a reference list at the end. Of the 7 references, at least 3 must be
original, academic sources (i.e., books, academic journal articles, statistical
reports) only.
Visual Elements: Your project should include visual elements that help to
illustrate the issue and help it “come alive.” This may include photographs,
charts, tables, graphics, or other visual effects. Be creative!
Overall professional presentation and organization: All elements use
appropriate grammar, professional language, and are free of typos.
Topic
Poverty/ Homelessness/Housing Services
Points
5
20
15
12
5
3
5
5
Assigned Book
Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the
American City by Matthew
Desmond
FAMILY
PLANNING
And
Reproductive Rights
This is a multifaceted, ever changing,
and divisive issue in American culture.
In this presentation I hope to bring to
light several issues surrounding family
planning and female reproductive rights
including:
Historical Context
Services and Approaches
Ecological Model Perspectives
Impactful Laws, People, and
Groups
Pro-Life Feminism
Local Reproductive Health
Organizations
WHY INVEST IN REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH?
FAMILY PLANNING LEADS TO
HEALTHIER CITIZENS AND A
STRONGER ECONOMY
In the research article “Fifty Years Of Family
Planning”, Martha J. Bailey found “that children
conceived in areas with greater legal or financial
access to family planning went on to live in higherearning households as adults than did children
conceived in the same areas whose mothers had
less access to family planning.”
Decreased access to family planning has negative
effects on the close-knit connection of physical and
financial health.
REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS IS NOT JUST A
WOMAN’S ISSUE IT IS A
HUMAN ISSUE
It is consistently America’s poor and minority groups who suffer
the most when heath care costs rise, or are simply taken away.
Access to abortion and birth control has become a tug-of-war with
those most in need suffering the harshest consequences.
The bi-directionality of this is that those who are poor and cannot
access contraceptives, have more children, furthering their depth into
poverty and lessening their children’s chances for success.
This is a human services issue intersecting with many other areas in
the field.
Timeline
To preface:
Western Civilization in the Modern era is not when
contraception began. Ancient Egyptians and
Grecians used their own forms of birth control.
Family planning is nothing new, but it continues to
be a struggle for much of the world.
1642 – Oldest excavated condom made from animal
membrane discovered
1839 – Vulcanization technology, invented by Charles
Goodyear, permits domestic manufacturing of condoms
and other contraceptive devices (Tone 399-440)
-This is not the only form of contraceptive
available for women or men at the time
1873 – Comstock Act outlaws importation of articles,
drugs, medicines, or printed materials considered
“obscenities”
1914 – Margaret Sanger opened first birth control clinic
in US, but is later arrested and the clinic is closed
1918 – New York Judge rules that contraceptive advice
and devices can be dispensed for “therapeutic”
purposes legally
The Timeline Continued…
1923 – First legal birth control clinic opens in New York, by Margaret
Sanger, called the Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau
1978 – Title X amended to place special emphasis on teenagers and
family planning
1935 – Title V is enacted by congress to create Maternal and Child
Health Programs to improve health of mothers and children
1987 – Reagan administration endorses “gag rule” to prohibit Title X
funded clinics from counseling women about abortion
1937 – North Carolina becomes first state to include birth control in a
public health program – but this often results in the sterilization of
poor, black women
1990 – FDA approves contraceptive implant for use
1950’s – $200,000 dollars spent on contraceptive devices by citizens,
even with 30 states prohibiting or restricting their sale
1950 – Margaret Sanger raises $150,000 toward the creation of the first
human birth control pill
1960 – FDA approves first oral contraceptive
1965 – Supreme Court rules in favor of married couples’ right to use
contraceptives (Griswold v. Connecticut)
1968 – FDA approves IUD’s (intrauterine device)
1970 – Title X established under Family Planning Services and
Population Research Act – Designed to provide comprehensive family
planning and preventative health services
1972 – Supreme Course extends right to unmarried couples to use
birth control. Medicaid is amended to include family planning
services, including abortion
1974 – National Research Act passed after “callous disregard for the
safety of female subjects” in birth control testing (Curry 181)
1977 – Hyde Amendment passes, withholding Medicaid funds for
abortions under Title X – directly affecting poor and minority groups
1993 – Clinton administration removes “gag rule” on Title X funded
clinics
2000 – Insurance provided to employees now required to cover Birth
Control
2001 – Bush administration institutes Global Gag Rule
(reproductiverights.org) limiting USAID funds for international nongovernmental organizations that provide abortions or counseling on
abortions
2006 – FDA approves Plan B for over-the-counter purchase
2009 – Obama administration rescinds Global Gag Rule imposed by
Bush administration
2011 – Affordable Care Act passed – includes that contraception must
be provided by insurance without patient co-pay
2017 – Trump administration issues ruling to let insurers and
employers deny coverage for contraception under “religious beliefs”
2019 – Trump administration requires Title X funded clinics to have
separate building for abortions equating to $20,000 to $40,000 in
in construction per clinic (theatlantic.com) – amendment has not
yet passed
Lots of historical events
Services and Approaches
Women’s Health Movement-1960s
• Ensure that women have knowledge about their bodies, especially in the
areas of reproduction and sexuality.
• Demand acknowledgment and respect for women’s expertise.
• Change the medical establishment and create alternative institutions.
• The Federation of Feminist Women’s Health Centers teach selfexaminations and menstrual extraction.
• The Our Bodies Ourselves Collective provides updated knowledge through
wide dissemination and frequent updating of their book.
The Title X Family Planning Program-1970s
• Provide grants for family planning services, training, research, and
informational and educational materials.
• Decrease the adverse health and financial effects of inadequately
spaced childbearing on children, women, and their families.
• Offer pregnant women the opportunity to be provided information
about prenatal care and delivery, infant care, foster care, or adoption,
and pregnancy termination.
• Emphasize services for adolescents and infertility services.
• Provide additional funding for family planning services for low-income
individuals.
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Contraceptive Coverage-2010

Expand women’s access to contraception by providing counseling and services
as well as all FDA-approved contraceptive methods without out-of-pocket
costs.

Make all contraceptive drugs and
devices prescribed including
emergency contraception available
to patients without cost-sharing.

Expand the number of people who
have health insurance coverage by
allowing adult children to stay on
their parents’ health insurance plans
until the age of 26 and by making
changes to Medicaid and Medicare
program.
Explanation of time
period
A Combination of
Services and
Approaches-Current
• Provide safe abortion services
• Renew family planning services
• Provide sexuality education
• Use various and effective methods of contraception
• Make treatment available for complications to attenuate morbidity and reduce
the mortality from unsafe abortions
• Respond to intimate partner violence and sexual violence, and provide the
appropriate medical services and follow-up care.
ECOLOGICAL FACTORS AND RELATIONSHIPS
MARGARET SANGER
INDIVIDUAL ~ EXOSYSTEM
The birth control movement of the early to mid
1800’s and Margaret Sanger, go hand in hand. While
contraceptives and information on them were
considered “obscene materials” and legally banned,
popular opinion polls of the time show general public
support for birth control.
Although her first clinic was shut down by police just 9
days after opening, she had created the impetus for a
movement. “The movement’s success in increasing
birth control’s medical legitimacy led the U.S. Second
Circuit Court of Appeals to strike down portions of the
federal Comstock law in U.S. v. One Package” (Bailey).
And the following year “the American Medical
Association reversed its longstanding opposition to
birth control” (Bailey).
Sanger was a sex educator, an activist, and an example
of how one individual can make changes to a larger
exosystem that will effect many people for years to
come.
STERILIZATION
MACROSYSTEM ~
EXOSYSTEM
Johanna Schoen’s “Between Choice and Coercion: Women and
the Politics of Sterilization in North Carolina, 1929-1975”, offers
a glimpse into how white America viewed black women, how
black women in turn viewed themselves (macrosystem), and
finally, how laws and procedures reflected those sentiments
(ecosystem).
Poor black women often lacked the ability to choose a safe and
effective form of birth control, and would thus apply for
elective sterilization through the eugenic sterilization program
funded by the state. “To justify their desire of sterilization [to
the state] women told stories of ill health, poverty, and
overburdened motherhood”, and consequently “in highlighting
their clients’ supposed inferiority and promiscuity, […] social
workers further reinforced this stereotyping” (Schoen 148).
The state was able to justify their standards and practices for
sterilization, and set limits on birth control options, because it
did not see these women as moral or deserving of better
treatment. Forcing poor black women to ask for help in this
manner, was perpetuating its “bias against African American’s
receiving public assistance” (Schoen 148).
POST-WWII BABY BOOM
MACROSYSTEM ~ EXOSYSTEM
The American attitude toward family planning
(macrosystem), and the laws that followed (exosystem),
were significantly changed by the post-WII baby boom
and coinciding population growth. Women were having
more children than they desired, and for low-income
women, this had especially costly and damaging effects.
The baby boom of the late 1950’s, in combination with
the invention of the birth control pill at this same time,
created impetus for increased spending on family
planning – leading to the creation of Title X.
Established in 1970 by President Nixon, this funding was
to go towards family planning services, education,
training, and research. “Congress emphasized that many
poor women desired family planning but were unable to
attain it” (IOC). The program “intended to decrease
adverse health and financial effects on inadequately
spaced childbearing on children, women, and their
families” (IOC).
GRISWOLD V.
CONNECTICUT
EXOSYSTEM ~ MACROSYSTEM
This momentous ruling in favor of a married woman’s
right to use brith control, was an exosystemic factor
that lead to the influence of larger cultural, or
macrosystemic, views of birth control.
Although the FDA had approved the pill for use 5
years prior, in 1960, it was still technically illegal. This
ruling helped cement change in America’s perception
of a women’s right to have sex for pleasure, and her
right to choose when she was ready for a family. The
age of free love, and smaller families was beginning culminating in “an improvement in families’ ability to
invest in each child” (Bailey), and an overall cultural
shift.
But while this ruling was a step in the right direction,
for the mother and the child, it was still limited to
married women. There was a stigma reinforced by
law, that women should not be having intercourse out
of wedlock. And if they do, it is shameful. It is a
stigma that we continue to feel today.
INFLUENTIAL PEOPLE AND GROUPS
ANTHONY
COMSTOCK
Anthony Comstock took the crusade against birth
control, abortion, and other “obscenities” very
seriously. The Comstock Law, named after himself,
became a major roadblock in legalizing and
normalizing the use of contraceptives.
Although there were some who agreed with
Comstock’s endeavor, most of society did not share his
views so enthusiastically. “Paralleling Americans’
response to other forms of regulated vice, a zone of
tolerance was created in which birth control was
routinely made, sold, bought, and used. Not openly
endorsed, contraceptives were nonetheless accepted.”
(Tone 438).
But over time, as birth control became even more
popular and accepted, these laws began to more
seriously stand in the way. Women like Sarah Chase,
and others in the Black Market birth control trade,
resisted these restrictions by continuing to educate
women in their community on sex and contraception paving the way for Margaret Sanger to create the birth
control pill, and what is now planned parenthood.
MARGARET SANGER
Margaret Sanger is often considered the leader of the
birth control movement in the America. Unlike Europe,
which had already dealt with a population boom and
had legalized the use of birth control, America was
farther behind in its acceptance of contraception.
Those living in poverty, especially minorities, were
disproportionately influenced by the enforcement of
obscenity laws and the Comstock Act. Sanger hoped to
close this gap in access by providing sex education and
contraception to those who wanted it.
Sanger not only open the first birth control clinic,
which is now, 100 years later, the current Planned
Parenthood, but she initiated the invention of the
birth control pill that so many women are on today.
With her funding, progesterone was discovered, and
in 1960, the first birth control pill was approved by the
FDA.
“These actions led to the widespread acceptance
and use of birth control, allowing people to control
their family size, contributing to the decline in infant
mortality rates, and increasing women’s education
and employment opportunities” (Mundt 123).
NATIONAL BIRTH CONTROL LEAGUE
PLANNED PARENTHOOD FEDERATION
The National Birth Control League, which is now Planned
Parenthood Federation, has possibly been the single most
influential organization throughout the past 100 years in
reproductive rights history. The creation of the original clinic
in 1916, was shut down after just 9 days, but “gained more
national attention for the birth control movement, taking a
stand against traditional religious beliefs and political
indifference” (Mundt 129).
Founded by Margaret Sanger, this organization continues to
fight for the rights of women and their reproductive
choices.
And today, Planned Parenthood serves almost 2 million
people annually for sexual and reproductive services.
The National Birth Control League set a precedent for how
women and their families deserve to be treated in America.
Research has proven that family planning leads to lower
infant mortality rates, smaller family size, and allows for
“more women to pursue higher education and
employment” (Mundt 129).
THE BOSTON WOMEN’S
BOOK COLLECTIVE
The Boston Women’s Book Collective played a
crucial role in the creation of the 1974
National Research Act.
This came in response to “researchers’ callous
disregard for the safety of female subjects”,
during a trial for a new form of birth control.
The visible protests and scathing critique of
current practices, helped initiate real change
regarding the procedures and standards used
when testing on humans, regardless of their
sex (Curry 181).
This organization was also the producer of the
highly influential and feminist-leaning book,
Our Bodies, Ourselves, which gave them
heightened notoriety, and promoted equality
for women and their bodies.
NATIONAL RIGHT TO
LIFE COMMITTEE
Along the way, there has also been the pro-life movement
playing a key role in the debate over human rights. The
NRLC came together officially in 1968, but was preceded by
many other pro-life groups opposing abortion as an option
for women.
The article “Women’s Right on the Right”, describes some of
the feminist leaning ideals these groups share with prochoice advocates including “efforts to eliminate a sexual
double standard, to remove the stigma attached to unwed
motherhood, and to increase government funding for
maternal care and healthcare” (240 Ziegler).
One important change they pushed for was removing the
mention of “illegitimacy” from birth certificates – a term
that added stigma to unwed motherhood. “The NLRC was
concerned that stigmatizing unwed motherhood might
encourage women to have abortions” (Ziegler 239).
But many would argue that their funding of politicians
through PACs, and their support of the Hyde Amendment
(which took away Title X funding for abortion),
disproportionally hurts poor people, and they are not
connected to the realties of poverty and systemic racism.
CURRENT
AGENCIES
PLANNED
PARENTHOOD
Planned Parenthood is a National Organization with clinics
located throughout the country, including here in the
Eugene/Springfield area. Their main building is located in
Springfield, and is easily accessible by the EMX bus line.
Some of their free services include:
Bir…
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