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Need some assistance with two DB replies. Please see the attachment. Have a great day!BMAL 702
Submit replies of at least 250 words each to at least 2 other students. Each reply must be
supported by citing at least 2 peer-reviewed journal articles. Your replies must be in current APA
format and must include a reference list. Make sure that you are adding new and relevant
information with each reply.
Reply to Callesha
Prior to discussing the approaches of leadership we must first understand the meaning of Leadership. Leadership is
the tact to achieve the set goals of an organization by motivating people to work efficiently. It is the capability of
getting excellent results from average employees. It is the perception far above the average. It is the quality of a
person who will inspire others with his personality, traits, and skills to follow him. In short, it is the process of
influencing others to follow your footsteps with their willingness (Shaver, 2012). Leadership is the intrinsic and
innate capacity of a person (Khoshhal & Guraya, 2016). There are certain traits of a person which help them to be a
successful leader (Northouse, 2019).
It is very imperative to understand the trait approaches to leadership. It is one of the oldest theories of leadership and
it is related to the personality of leaders and their attributes and perspectives as to how one sees a problem and how
one will respond to it. These traits are intrinsic and are a consistent part of their personality (Fleenor, 2006). The
most important trait of a leader is integrity. It is the trait of a person that executes plans as promised. A leader with
integrity is a “man of his words”. A leaders must be honest with their employees so that he can inspire them with his
integrity. No employee will consider a person as a leader if he is dishonest with others or not forthright. Therefore,
integrity is a crucial and significant trait of inspiring leaders. Leaders will reinforce workers in the promotion and
application of change, retaining employees and improving their performances (Swain, Cao, & Gardner, 2018).
Another approach towards leadership is the skills approach which states that some skills can be learned with time.
These skills are not inherent but are learned with experience and the gaining of knowledge. These skills are
developed using evaluated training and assistance (Wright & Taylor, 1985). According to the three skills approach,
effective leadership has three types of skills such as technical, conceptual and human skills. Technical skills are
related to a certain type of knowledge regarding a task. These skills involve techniques, practices, actions, or
methods. Information regarding the company’s guidelines, framework, and administration are also included in the
technical skill. These are achieved by the passage of time and experience as mentioned before (Haq, 2011). These
skills are also important when launching a new product for the company and are not quite significant in top
The type of skill needed by top management leadership is a conceptual skill. It is the capability of thinking critically,
analyzing things logically and making the appropriate decision at the appropriate time. This also contains farsightedness, worthy decision making, vision, creativeness, and the competence to take verdicts in complex
circumstances. These are required by top-level management leaders because he has to make plans and decisions to
make the company achieve greater results (Haq, 2011). Leadership is the capability of a person to drive normal
employees in achieving great outcomes by inspiring them with his traits and skills. The traits are inherent in a leader
such as integrity and skills which are learned with the time. While traits and skills approach are quite important in
developing success, leaders will be the reason for the success of a company. According to the bible, a leader must
possess some qualities that should be honest and should not tolerate any wrongdoing, same as the integrity trait of
leadership which requires a leader to possess honesty as a part of its personality. A leader must be knowledgeable
and have in-depth knowledge regarding the company’s matters according to the Bible which relates to technical and
conceptual skills required by a leader (Bimson, 1994).
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Fleenor, J. W. (2006). The trait approach to leadership. Psychology, 37(1), 651-665.
Haq, S. (2011). Ethics and leadership skills in the public service. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15,
Khoshhal, K. I., & Guraya, S. Y. (2016). Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers: a systematic
review of the desired competencies and standard settings for physicians’ leadership. Saudi medical journal, 37(10),
Shaver, E. (2012). The many definitions of leadership. The Human Factor Advocate.
Swain, A. K., Cao, Q. R., & Gardner, W. L. (2018). Six Sigma success: Looking through authentic leadership and
behavioral integrity theoretical lenses. Operations Research Perspectives, 5, 120-132.
Wright, P. L., & Taylor, D. S. (1985). The implications of a skills approach to leadership. Journal of Management
Northouse, P. G. (2019). Leadership: theory and practice (8th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Bimson, John J. “1 and 2 Kings.” In New Bible Commentary: 21st Century Edition. 4th ed. Edited by D. A. Carson,
R. T. France, J. A. Motyer, and G. J. Wenham. Leicester, England; Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity, 1994.
Trait and Skill Approaches in Leadership (28.061 KB)
Reply to Thomas
Leadership is a complex action and responsibility that involves many different traits and
skills. Some of these traits and skills are likely innate and some can be learned or trained. The
link to leadership and certain traits may have positive and negative consequences. Trait
leadership theory “rests on the premise that leaders are individuals with innate traits of
leadership” (Pidgeon & Kristopher, 2017, p. 339) Understanding some of the traits and trait to
leadership relationships of leaders can help contribute to the overall understanding of leadership
theories. “The theory has an advantage, as it is easy to accept for many individuals and research
has validated the foundation of the theory.” (Pidgeon & Kristopher, 2017, p. 339)
Traits of leaders can have an impact on their effectiveness. One of those traits that has an
effect on a leader is agreeableness. “Agreeableness refers someone who is modest, altruistic,
trusting, kind and cooperative.” (Özbağ, 2016, p. 218) According to a study by Prochazka,
Vaculik, Smutny, and Jezek (2018) they had a participant list of 210 students in a leadership role
and 3,766 students in a subordinate role. The study then put the participants through a fourmonth management simulation game. After the management simulation was over, the
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subordinate participants were given questionnaires regarding their leaders and leader participants
were given a personality questionnaire and intelligence test. The results concluded that,” The
strongest predictor of leader effectiveness in our research was agreeableness.” (p. 492) The trait
of agreeableness can also be seen as ineffective in certain cases. For example, in the text by
Merida (2016) where he references the ruler Rehoboam as having some agreeableness qualities.
Rehoboam was very agreeable and cooperative to his mother, where he “made the wrong
choice.” (p. 86) because of it. “He did evil, because he did not prepare his heart to seek the
LORD.” (2 Chr 12:14 NKVJ)
Other traits of leaders may also exhibit mostly negative effects. One of those traits is
Neuroticism. “Neuroticism stands for anxiety, worry, anger, trouble, impulsive, acting
uncontrolled, insecurity and stressed.” (Özbağ, 2016, p. 238) In a study by Özbağ (2016), they
utilized participants who were students in the Marine Business Administration Department of
Kocaeli University. They filled out a questionnaire regarding personality traits and ethical
leadership. The results of the study concluded, “Finally the results indicate a negative
relationship between neuroticism and ethical leadership,” (p. 241) and that it is “reasonable that
leaders who score higher on neuroticism are likely to be rated lower on ethical leadership.”
(p.241) In a study by Prochazka, Vaculik, Smutny, and Jezek (2018) they also found that
“Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, and intelligence did not predict
transformational leadership.” (p. 489)
Even though “the trait theory rests on the premise that leaders are individuals with innate
traits of leadership. Leaders are born and cannot be trained or developed. These traits include
drive, honesty, integrity, charisma, and self-confidence,” (Pidgeon & Kristopher, 2017, p.
339) it is clear that the theory of trait leadership isn’t strictly something one is born into or that
trait leadership is an all-encompassing theory of leadership. It is difficult to say that these traits,
including agreeableness and neuroticism are something that is innate only and should be
considered for future research.
Merida, T., Akin, D. D. L., Platt, D. (2015). Exalting Jesus in 1 & 2 Kings. United States:
Publishing Group.
Özbağ, G. K. (2016). The role of personality in leadership: Five factor personality traits
and ethical leadership. Procedia – Social and
Behavioral Sciences, 235, 235-242.
Pidgeon, K. (2017). The Keys for Success. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 24(6) 338-341.
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doi: 10.1097/JTN.0000000000000322
Prochazka, J., Vaculik, M., Smutny, P., & Jezek, S. (2018). Leader traits, transformational
leadership and leader effectiveness: A mediation study from the Czech republic *. Journal of
East European Management Studies, 23(3), 474501.

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