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i need comments for each peers report i uploaded below which consists comments of: *Rubric comments for all each subsection below: Background: Theory Hypothesis: Objectives: Methods: Safety: Results: Calculations: Discussion: Conclusion: Research Connection: References: Overall Format: * leave at least 5 intext commentsGeneral Chemistry I Lab Report Rubric – Project 1: Inorganic salts present in water samples
Sections
Sub-Sections / Descriptions
Requirements
Total
Describe why it may be necessary to
identify unknown chemicals in day-to-day
life with specific examples.
Background: A summary of a real-world
example(s) and / or application(s) that
affirm the importance / help introduce the
chemistry of this lab.
Note: Do not use the examples in the
laboratory manual. If included in your
laboratory report, no credit will be given.
The example(s) and / or application(s)
provided should demonstrate:
– Research context for the problem(s)
and / or question(s) the experiment
seeks to address.
/ 10
– Relate the problem to scientific theory,
i.e. the qualitative/quantitative tests.
– Explain how and why this research is
important to conduct in the laboratory.
Concepts that can be included but are not
limited to:
Qualitative/Quantitative analysis
-Solubility
-Conductivity
Introduction
Theory: Provide an overview of the key
scientific concepts / theories that explain
how the experiment works.
-pH
-Flame test
/ 10
-Gravimetric analysis
-Volumetric analysis
The overall goal of this section should be
to help familiarize your readers (who may
be non-scientists) with the topics you
have introduced and the importance of
your work.
Hypothesis: A hypothesis should
logically express what the researcher
thinks the overall outcome of the lab
should be.
Objectives: The goal to be achieved at the
end of each part of the experiment and a
summary on how those goals will be
attained.
Hypothesis: From the physical properties
of your unknown (texture, color, etc.),
what chemical do you hypothesize your
unknown to be.
Remember to include your rationale for
why you think your hypothesis is
reasonable.
/ 10
Objectives: Explain the objective for each
week of the experiment.
– Provide a brief explanation of the
investigational method you will
execute for each objective.
Methods
Part 1 Methods: This section should
contain all of the details recorded in your
notebook on how the experiments were
carried out.
The two main tasks of this section are to:
/ 10
This includes numerical details such as
mass, volume, temperature, reaction time,
etc.
Note: Each experiment should have its
own appropriate subheading.
Describe the exact laboratory apparatus
and laboratory procedure a researcher
utilized to collected empirical data.
– i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware
(with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc.
Describe the process of how to analyze
the collected empirical data.
Provide a step-by-step procedure for:
-Solubility
-Conductivity
-pH test
-Flame test
-Analysis of ions
The two main tasks of this section are to:
Describe the exact laboratory apparatus
and laboratory procedure a researcher
utilized to collected empirical data.
– i.e. exact masses, volumes, glassware
(with sizes), chemicals, equipment, etc.
Part 2 Methods: See description above.
Describe the process of how to analyze
the collected empirical data.
/ 10
Provide a step-by-step procedure for:
-Gravimetric analysis, or
-Volumetric analysis
Use a table to organize the safety
information for each chemical utilized
during the course of the experiment.
Safety: Should contain information on the
chemicals used in this experiment and the
necessary precautions taken when using
them.
There should also be information on any
other physical hazards (i.e. fire, sharp
objects, etc.) and the precautions you
took.
Please provide all the information stated
below for each chemical utilized:

Chemical Name
Chemical Formula
Molecular Weight
Potential Hazards
Safety Equipment Needed
Please provide safety information on all
laboratory equipment (excluding
glassware) when applicable (ex. hot plate)
– Equipment Name
– Precautions Used
/5
Part 1 Results: This section should
contain all of the empirical data you
obtained or calculated from the
experiment you performed.
Use a table to organize the empirical data
you collected per trial for all the tests
carried out.
This includes but is not limited to:
-Initial masses/volumes
The data should be displayed
appropriately, i.e. tabulated, graphed, etc.
to make it easy for the reader to refer back
to it in the corresponding discussion
section.
-Concentrations used/prepared
/ 10
-Solubility
-Conductivity
-pH test
Therefore, each table, graph, etc. should
be numbered and titled appropriately.
-Flame test
-Analysis of ions
Results
Use a table to organize the empirical data
you collected per trial for all the tests
carried out.
This includes but is not limited to:
Part 2 Results: See description above.
Calculations: Provide sample
calculations for all equations used to
analyze your results, even for nonobvious algebraic steps.
Results
(continued)
For each type of calculation performed,
this should include the mathematical
formula and a sample calculation using
that mathematical formula.
Please number each sample calculation
appropriately, to make it easier for the
reader to refer to it in the corresponding
discussion section.

Initial masses/volumes
Moles reacted
Concentrations used/prepared
/ 10
Gravimetric analysis
Volumetric analysis
Theoretical yield / concentrations
Standard deviation
Percent error
Sample calculations to include are:
– Dilution Formula, (M1 ∙ V1 = M2 ∙ V2 )
– %wt solution
– Preparing solutions
– Theoretical yield / concentrations
– Standard deviations
– Percent error
/ 10
Discuss the results obtained in Results
Part 1.
Compare and contrast the theory you
described in the introduction (this proves
you understand the theory).
Part 1 Discussion: This portion of the
paper should attempt to explain all of the
results from the experiment in Part 1.
You should also justify why certain
decisions were made when carrying out
the experiments (i.e. if there were options
for techniques to be used, compounds to
be tested, etc.).
Describe your data in detail, especially
the vital information that will help bolster
or refute your hypothesis.
Compare the standards and the unknown
so you can formulate a strong argument to
prove the nature of your unknown.
Does the data support your hypothesis or
hypotheses, why or why not?
/ 10
Does the scientific theory behind the
experiment assist you in providing an
explanation for your results?
Use the values from your results to
support your arguments and compare
them to theoretical values if possible.
Discussion
Tip: Use page 44 in your lab manual to
obtain literature / theoretical values for
each of your tests under Supplemental
Information links.
Discuss the results obtained in Results
Part 2.
Does the data support your hypothesis or
hypotheses, why or why not?
Use the values from your results to
support your arguments and compare
them to theoretical values if possible.
Part 2 Discussion: See description above.
Does the scientific theory behind the
experiment assist you in providing an
explanation for your results?
/ 10
Utilizing your calculated standard
deviation and percent error values,
compare the efficiency of the
experimental technique you developed.
Discussion
(continued)
Sources of Error: Discuss any major
sources of error in the experiment that
may have altered the experiment’s
outcome.
Changes to the Experiment: discuss any
changes you would make to the
experiment (to reduce errors, make the
Sources of Error: Include any systematic
and random errors that could possibly
influence your results.
Are your results reliable?
Simply stating human error was present is
not valid nor beneficial when considering
/ 10
experiment more practical, etc.) and
explain why.
how to improve your experimental
methodology.
– As the researcher, you need to mention
the specific type of error that occurred
during the experiment.
Examples of appropriate sources of error
are listed below but are not limited to:
– Measuring errors, (i.e. chemicals)
– Improperly maintained equipment used
during the experiment
– Improper cleaning / contamination
– Discuss the uncertainty of your
experimental data by providing
statistical analysis when appropriate,
i.e. standard deviation can be
referenced.
Changes to the Experiment: Identify how
you would alter your experimental
methodology to reduce or minimize errors
and increase the reproducibility of your
empirical data.
What was the purpose of the experiment?
A goal of this section is to include a
restate the experiment’s hypothesis and
objectives.
Conclusion
In addition, a summary should be
provided on whether or not your
hypothesis was affirmed or denied based
on your empirical data.
Finally, briefly outline any major sources
of error that could have given unexpected
results.
This section should summarize an article
(published in an accredited scientific
journal) that is related to the experiment
that you executed in the laboratory.
Research
Connection
You should describe the technique(s) used
in the article, the motivations for
performing the experiment(s), the main
findings, and how these factors relate to
the experiment you performed.
Did you learn anything new when you
executed the experiment?
How did you investigate the problem and
why investigate in that specific way?
What evidence did you obtain that
strongly supported or refuted your
hypothesis?
/ 10
As the researcher, after completing the
experiment do are you still have any
unanswered questions, i.e. is further
inquiry and investigation needed, why or
why not?
Pick a concept or a technique related to
the experiment and find a recent peerreviewed scientific article.
– (i.e. must have been published within
the last five (5) years)
Utilize a scientific search engine such as:
– Google Scholar
/ 10
– Science Direct
– Web of Science
– USF Library E-Journals
Tip: Within your Canvas course there is a
resource entitled ‘Searching the
Literature for Sources’ that provides
additional information on how to search
the literature for appropriate research
articles.
When summarizing the article these are
the questions you should answer:
What question(s) did the article address?
What was / were the objective(s) of the
article?
What procedure(s) did they utilize to
answer their proposed question(s)?
What results did they collect and how did
they analyze them?
What were the conclusions of the
experiment?
Did the researchers answer their
question(s) or is further inquiry and
investigation needed?
Any idea, concept, application etc., that
did not originate from you personally
must be cited.
References
Please utilize ACS (American Chemical
Society) format and have both an in-text
citation, as well as the full citation under
the references heading.
As a reminder, directly quoting an
external source is unacceptable.
You are required to paraphrase, in your
own words, all cited information that
appears in your laboratory report.
Overall Format
All sections, subsections, tables, charts,
images, etc. must be headed and titled
appropriately.
Use a font / text that is agreeable to the
eye (ask your TA for specifics).
Use ACS (American Chemical Society)
citation format.
All in-text citations should be cited with a
superscript number, and should match the
appropriate cited external reference in the
references section.
/ 10
Superscript numbers are issued based on
the order they appear in the document.
They are not based on the alphabetical
last name of the author of the external
source your citing.
Size 12 font with Times New Roman is
appropriate.
An example utilizing the illustrated
guidelines from the box directly to the left
is written below.
Using the materials provided from the
stockroom, the unknown sample was
/5
All sections (except the results section)
should be written in paragraph form.
Also, all writing should be in past tense,
passive voice. Present or future tense may
be used only in the introduction.
analyzed using the pH test…etc. . In
addition, gravimetric/volumetric analysis
was carried out to… etc.
Tip # 1: On pp 15-16 of your laboratory
manual you will find additional
information on general laboratory
guidelines you may utilize to develop
your laboratory report.
Tip # 2: On pp 65-72 of your laboratory
manual you will find example visual aids
of how to format the various sections of
your laboratory report discussed above.
Peer Review
Reflection
What (if any) changes were made on your final report based on the
feedback/comment(s) received from the peer review(s)? You may include both, the
most and least constructive feedback you received from your peers.
Total Score
155
/5
/ 155
Additional Information
You must submit a completed initial laboratory report to Canvas by the submission deadline of your course to receive the three
(3) points allocated to that assignment. You will earn only 1 point for submission of incomplete initial lab reports.
Please do not write your name on your initial lab report for peer review purposes. All students should instead write the last five
(5) digits of their USF ID number.
Plagiarism is unacceptable! Any form of plagiarism will result in a “0”. Remember that the only sections allowed to be similar
to your group members are the methods and results sections. Read the Syllabus for details.
Grade for Peer Review – Rubric for TA’s and Students
Initial Lab Report Submission and Completion of Peer Review
Criteria
0
1
2
3
Initial lab report submitted but
incomplete.

Initial lab report was submitted
completely.
/3
Peer review Student submitted peer review
was not
for only one of the assigned
performed reports.
for any of
the
assigned
reports.

Student submitted peer review
for all assigned reports.
/3
Submission
Initial lab
of Initial Lab report was
Report
not
submitted.
Peer Review
Completion
Total pts
TOTAL
/6
Quality of Peer Review Submitted
Quality
No peer
review
comments.
All comments
• lack specificity
• lack development
• lack directive suggestions
for revision
All comments demonstrate
developing
• specificity
• directive suggestions for
revision
All comments are
• clear and directive, rather
than solely evaluative
• well developed
In-text comments are
• not textually grounded
• not focused on specific
local issues
• inaccurate and lack detail
In-text comments are
In-text comments are occasionally consistently
• textually grounded
• textually grounded
• focused on a specific local issue • focused on a specific local
issue
• accurate and detailed
• accurate and detailed
/3
Rubric comments are
Rubric comments demonstrate
• ineffectively general/broad
Rubric
comments
demonstrate
consistent ability to
• do not provide grounded
inconsistent ability to
• specifically identify trends
directives for revision
• specifically identify trends in
in the author’s writing
• inaccurate and lack detail
the author’s writing
• provide grounded directives
• provide grounded directives for
for revision
revision
• accurately discuss issues
• accurately discuss issues
• provide detailed discussion
of issues
• provide detailed discussion of
issues
Quantity
No peer
review
comments.
The student leaves less than 5 The student leaves at least 5 in-text The student leaves at least 5 inin-text comments.
comments
text comments.
Rubric comments are not
made for all areas.
Style
No peer
review
comments.
Rubric comments are not made in
all areas.
Rubric comments are made for
all areas.
Comments demonstrate
Comments demonstrate
• a lack of respect, support
• a developing respect, support
or empathy for the writer
and empathy for the writer
• no effort to communicate
• a developing effort to
with the writer and
communicate with the writer
improve the writer’s work
and improve the writer’s work
• inappropriate or offensive
• appropriate diction
diction
Comments demonstrate
• clear respect, support and
empathy for the writer
• clear effort to communicate
with the writer and
improve the writer’s work
• diction that is both
effective/clear and
appropriate
TOTAL
Your total peer review quality score (out of 9 points) will be the average of the reports you reviewed.
Make sure to properly provide constructive feedback on all reports according to the rubrics.
/3
/3
/9
Inorganic Contaminants Present in Water Samples
Isabelle Guzzi U83098421
CHM 2045L – 015
Jaret Crews
26 Feb 2020
I.
Introduction
a. Background:
Being able to identify an unknown chemical and its amount is important for everyday life as
inorganic contaminants are frequently found in the environment. They may be present in places
like water, food, soil, and air. For example, the process of determining an unknown chemical
proves a great deal of purpose for forensic pathologists, who use these methods to find a cause of
death. Forensic scientists often see to identifying unknown toxins or drugs that are in the systems
of their specimen. Additionally, scientists have to identify unknown chemicals that appear in food
or water so they do not cause further contamination or illness. So, the determination of unknown
chemicals is important for the function of daily life.
b. Theory:
During this experiment, both qualitative and quantitative analysis were used in determining the
unknown chemical. Qualitative analysis consisted of tests for pH, conductivity, and solubility.
Quantitative analysis consisted of using gravimetric analysis. Testing for pH determined if the
unknown substance was acidic (below a pH of 7), basic (above a pH of 7), or neutral (pH equal to
7). Conductivity tests showed if the solution was able to conduct electricity, therefore if it
contained ions. Solubility tests were used to determine which substances produced a precipitate
with the unknown solution. These tests helped clarify which ions the unknown chemical was
soluble and insoluble with. Gravimetric analysis consisted of separating the liquid out of the
solution to measure the mass of the solid precipitate. This method was used the second week of
this project to help better conclude the identity of the unknown chemical.
c. Hypothesis:
The objective of this experiment was to be able to use qualitative and quantitative tests to
determine the identity of a given unknown compound. This compound is predicted to be some
type of salt that can possibly be dissolved in water. During the first week of this experiment,
qualitative tests were used in order to help eliminate certain chemicals the unknown could not be
and predict a few chemicals the unknown compound could be. After week one, the qualitative
tests narrowed down the unknown compound to be either Calcium Chloride or Calcium Nitrate.
The second week of this experiment will determine which of these compounds identifies as the
true unknown.
d. Objectives:
i. Week 1: Perform pH, conductivity, and solubility tests to compare and contrast the list of
known possible inorganic compounds with the unknown compound. Use the solubility
rules table and known pH and conductivity values to narrow down the chemicals.
ii. Week 2: Perform a final solubility test to confirm the makeup of the unknown chemical,
then use gravimetric analysis to determine the mass of the precipitate. Compare and
contrast the discovered precipitate mass to the mass of the compound that is supposedly
the unknown.
II.
Methods
a. Week 1 Methods: Begin by preparing an aqueous stock solution by mixing 0.51g of the unknown
sample and 99.49g of deionized water in a 250 mL beaker. This solution will be used for pH,
conductivity, and solubility testing so use it sparingly. First, test for pH by using a pH probe and
inserting it into the solution. Wait until the pH stabilizes, then record the data. Repeat this process
three more times to decrease chance of error. To perform the conductivity test, obtain the
conductivity meter and place the electrodes of it in the same stock solution. Allow time for the
measurements to stabilize and repeat this process three more times. To perform the solubility tests,
b.
c.
f…
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