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The final project for this course is the creation of an organizational assessment and recommendations report. The study of organizational assessment and program evaluation is a growing subfield within the field of criminal justice. As professionals in criminal justice systems are often faced with dynamic environments and high expectations of performance, citizens demand accountability, and politicians challenge the effectiveness of current policies. Many criminal justice organizations are employing assessment or policy and planning personnel to assess their organization’s effectiveness in meeting their stated goals or mission. These skills in assessment are vital to the development of leadership roles in police agencies, corrections, and the court system. Given the contemporary issues surrounding the police use of force, prison escapes and violence, and court personnel overstepping their roles, the performance of criminal justice organizations has been questioned by the general public, government, and media. It is vital that professionals continuously assess a criminal justice organization’s performance and ensure the organization is meeting the goals of its established mission statement in a dynamic and changing landscape, to build effective public service organizations. In the summative assessment, you will assess the performance of a subdivision of a criminal justice organization from the provided case scenario. You will begin by examining the structure and mission of your selected criminal justice organization to identify the specific goals and responsibilities of the subdivisions in relation to the performance of the overall organization. Next, you will select a specific subdivision in the organization on which to base your performance assessment. You will assess the effectiveness of the subdivision in reaching the organization’s established goals, utilizing measurement strategies to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to the organization. Based on your assessment, you will create recommendations for the organization to improve its performance, as well as recommend communication strategies to distribute relevant information to the appropriate individuals within the organization.In this assignment, you will demonstrate your mastery of the following course outcomes: Analyze criminal justice organizational structures and policies for informing the development of methods to improve organizational performance  Determine appropriate organizational assessment strategies to acquire valid and reliable data for measuring the effectiveness of criminal justice organizations in meeting their established goals  Analyze how internal and external factors impact the effectiveness of organizational performance in criminal justice organizations  Develop evidence-based recommendations to improve the performance of criminal justice organizations in meeting their established goals  Propose strategies to communicate evidence-based recommendations to diverse audiences within criminal justice organizations for informing continuous improvement of organizational performanceParole/Probation Subdivision (aka Community Corrections) The roles of the Parole/Probation subdivision revolve around performing professional assessment and supervision of criminal offenders. Correctional probation officers are responsible for investigating, assessing, supervising, counseling, and/or classifying offenders. In addition to the FDC organizational mission statement, the Parole Subdivision has its own mission, The Community Corrections Department and its officers shall service all adult offenders and families, victims, law enforcement officers, agency representatives, and the public—with equal respect, dignity, and sensitivity. The Community Corrections Department will develop an array of comprehensive services addressing the needs of both inmates and the surrounding community. This subdivision has recently been faced with some challenges, including lack of interdepartmental communication, low supervisor-to-subordinate ratio, obsolete information technology software, and an unreliable record management system. These impacts have led to a high employee turnover rate as well as gaps in accurate tracking of offenders. The department has a low rate of offenders and one of the best re-entry programs in the state. The surrounding community is satisfied with the level of service the department provides.  Parole subdivision policies: are all of my Milestones with the information that needs to be added to this report and it needs to at least 8-10 pages.Guidelines for Submission:Your organizational assessment and recommendations report must be 8–10 pages in length (plus a cover page and references) and must be written in APA format. Use double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, and one-inch margins. Include at least four references cited in APA format.I cannot do anymore than $5 so please be generousRunning Head: PROBATION/PAROLE
Stephanie M. Clapper
Instructor- Kenneth Lang
Southern New Hampshire University
January 27, 2020
The Department of Corrections in Florida State has three subdivisions. The Re-entry
division which emphasizes on rehabilitation, treatment as well as recovery, probation/parole
division which is chiefly overseen discharge, and the corrections division, basically is the
detention part. The re-entry division, helps convicts with some aspects of rehabilitation,
treatment or recover they might want. The Probation/Parole division is where a convict is
sentenced or unconfined to a tryout, and gets to be overseen by a parole officer. The parole
official ensures that convicts adhere to the conditions of probation or release and gives
information of whichever desecration to the courts of law. Florida corrections division consists
of officers whose mandate is to safeguard the society from the convicts by locking up the
convicts in the correction prisons and give report of whichever desecration the convicts commit
while imprisoned. The sole aim the three departments is most notably is to safeguard the society
from reprobates, but also to assist the convicts to come to be law-abiding citizens, citizens who
are productive of that same society, all three subdivisions work collectively to attain this.
“The Bureau of Probation and Parole Field Services is responsible for developing,
implementing, revising, and monitoring programs in the areas of probation and other field
supervision operations, sentencing guidelines, probation and parole databases, court-ordered
payments, and sexual offenders/predators”
The bureau as well develops policies for correctional probation officers (CPOs) and
supervise nearly 200 thousand offenders statewide requiring community supervision. CPOs collect
fees, victim restitution, and fines while working diligently with additional law enforcement
organizations to ensure the safety of the society as the convicts are unconfined back into society.
The BCPC monitors programs in the Office of Community Corrections. Be in charge of
technical support as well as supervision, and coordinate recertification and in- service for auxiliary
and active staff and CPOs. The absconder unit tracks and apprehends any fugitive, or otherwise
missing offenders that has not reported as required. The also works in conjunction with other
divisions within Florida’s Community Correction, as well as other local and state law enforcement
agencies to shield its people and societies by overseeing well-known convicts and commenting
about non-adherence to the releasing or sentencing power.
Each Regional Director, is in charge of guiding as well as managing their society
correction operation in the appointed geographic area by overseeing the programs, as well as
ensuring that the ex-convicts are overseen as mandated by department and statute policies.
The Probation and Parole division has several policies in place to help ensure offender
compliance such as transferring supervised offenders across state lines. Offender grievance policy,
restoration of civil rights, and policy for court ordered payments as well as a policy for victim
notification prior to offender completion or release from program (https://www.flrules.).
Evans, E. (2015). Police/probation partnerships – the anticipated impact of “transforming
rehabilitation.” International Journal of Emergency Services, 4(2), 194-211.
“Florida Department of Corrections “Inspiring Success by Transforming One Life at a Time.””
Vision, Mission, Value, and Goals — Florida Department of Corrections. Accessed June 6, 2019.
“Probation Services.” Florida Department of Corrections.
Stephanie M. Clapper
Assessment Plan: Probation and Parole
Instructor-Kenneth Lang
Southern New Hampshire University
February 9, 2020
Assessment Plan
An assessment plan is designed as a tool, especially in probation, for collecting integral
information that is applied in determining the magnitude of offender risk to an organization or
the community, as well as the requirements for a successful unconditional release or discharge
on probation supervision. As Singh, Kroner, Wormith, Desmarais, and Hamilton (2018)
described, a parole board uses the information collected via the assessment plan to evaluate the
nature of an offense and associated severity, the potential degree of remorse for the offender and
the sentence duration served for release with minimal recidivism. The assessment allows
determination of the capacity of the offender to assimilate in the organization, develop a
residence and acquire meaningful employment on release. Moreover, the information is pertinent
to policy formulation, budgeting, and the development of standard operating procedures or
training programs. This article discusses the key elements of the assessment plan for unbiased
data collection.
A. Organizational Assessment StrategyIn this assessment plan, risk and needs assessment (RNA)
strategy is implemented in the collection of information from the selected organizational
subdivision. Using the RNA strategy, information is collected using a Post-Conviction Risk
Assessment (PCRA) instrument, which is an evidence-based framework developed to guide
peace officers on decisions relating to the level of risk to recidivism, and in the development of
training curriculum and policy formulation (Johnson, Lowenkamp, VanBenschoten & Robinson,
2011). The rationale for using the PCRA tool in the strategy is to facilitate efficiency and
effectiveness in the assessment of the selected subdivision within the organization in the
supervision of offenders. Importantly, RNA strategy has been regarded as an evidence-based
practice component in the determination of potential risks and needs of an offender with respect
to the definition of persons requiring targeting in the implementation of interventions. Secondly,
the tool is important in gathering information relative to the identification of individual attributes
and needs necessitating interventions, and design tailored supervision approaches that are
optimized to promise positive outcomes in line with the mission of the subdivision of the
B. Justification of Organizational Assessment Strategy
The choice of the RNA strategy in the collection of valid and reliable data is its capacity
to define the type and level of intervention required matching the needs identified to mitigate
recidivism rates in the organization. Based on the need principle, the strategy facilitates isolation
of risk level concerning the presence or absence of criminogenic factors (Cohen, Lowenkamp &
Robinson, 2018). These factors are personal characteristics and potential conditions linked to
increased risk of recidivism. The use of RNA strategy is considered based on the position of the
data collection tool in integrating the principles of needs, risks, and responsibility of the offender
by elaborating on personal characteristics to target in the organizational intervention, needs
requiring to be addressed, and potential barriers to implementation success. As such, the
organization is able to allocate pertinent resources, and develop policies and procedures to
augment successful intervention implementation in the realization of the organizational mission.
C. Sources of Data and Information for Assessment
Different sources of information are captured in the PCRA tool. For instance, personal
information of criminal history is captured, where scores of criminal past, education and
employment history, substance use, involvement in social networks, cognitions, and violence
assessment are assessed (Johnson et al. 2011). In the implementation of the RNA strategy, the
information potentiates the elaboration of caseloads to probation and/or parole officers.
Secondly, the assessment uses crime reports, including self-reporting of individual criminal
activities, which are crucial in establishing crime rates, and effectiveness on interventions due to
a positive impact. Conclusively, while effective implementation of RNA strategy facilitates the
realization of organizational mission, the assessment is able to define the relative rate of
recidivism among those on parole and/or probation.
Cohen, T. H., Lowenkamp, C. T., & Robinson, C. (2018). The Federal Post-Conviction Risk
Assessment Instrument: A Tool for Predicting Recidivism for Offenders on Federal
Supervision. Handbook of Recidivism Risk/Needs Assessment Tools, 77.
Johnson, J. L., Lowenkamp, C. T., VanBenschoten, S. W., & Robinson, C. R. (2011). The
construction and validation of the federal Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA).
Fed. Probation, 75, 16.
Singh, J. P., Kroner, D. G., Wormith, J. S., Desmarais, S. L., & Hamilton, Z. (Eds.). (2018).
Handbook of recidivism risk/needs assessment tools. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Performance Assessment of Parole/ Probation
Stephanie M. Clapper
Instructor- Kenneth Lang
Southern New Hampshire University
February 17, 2020
Performance Assessment of Parole/ Probation
Based on the stance to prepare offenders to become productive members of the society,
protecting public safety, and assisting the courts, crime victims, and Parole Board, the
performance of the justice system has experienced significant progress since its initiation
(Paparozzi & DeMichele, 2008). Today, parole/probation is recognized for its attribute of
creating a positive change in the lives of offenders, as well as enhancing public safety through
the provision of various services. It is critical to analyze the precepts that have contributed to this
significant growth of parole/probation motives. The following SWOT analysis indicates the
performance of the organization over the years.
As part of the criminal justice organization, parole/probation has attained significant
progress in its strengths of partnering with other bodies such as arms of the government and
agencies to see to it that it fulfils its objectives. Its strong relationships have influenced it to
supervise its activities which have an impact on society. Williams, Wormith, Bonta, & Sitarenios
(2017) indicates that the opportunities that come with parole/probation are the inclinations of
added partnerships and the attribute of finding new ways to be sustainable. The weaknesses of
the organization are insufficient space and parole/probation officers. The number of officers to
offenders is extensive and must be worked on. Threats that the criminal justice system is exposed
to is the low recruitment which makes supervision cumbersome and continued indiscipline traits
in the society.
According to Schaefer & Williamson (2017), parole/probation is critically affected by the
attribute of government funding that enables it to operate effectively; the organization has been
able to realize its objectives since this disposition presents swift administration and call of action.
When employees are compensated handsomely, they tend to perform their duties effectively as
well as maintain the body concerning justice. To operate and compete effectively with other
institutions, it is essential to concentrate on the equal allocation of funds within the various
departments of the justice system.
Technological advancement is an external dynamic that influences the operations of
criminal justice, both positively and negatively. Maruschak & Parks (2012) show that
administrative and security factions are run efficiently through technology where parole
/probation officers use technology to motor offenders. It is easy to monitor the movement of
every offender from a computer, and this has critically enhanced the performance of the
parole/probation since its initiation.
The criminal and justice system has been elemental in pursuing its goals through the
funding they receive. Offenders can be contained as well as the expansion of space and
development of facilities to hold inmates. Technically, it maximizes its strengths in pursuing
offenders and ensuring safety within society. It is accurate that through the measure of providing
educational facilities for the offenders and monitoring their progress, funding is put to good use.
This perspective is also helping in educating the officials and investing in equipment which
minimizes the threats of criminal justice systems.
Paparozzi & DeMichele (2008) stipulates that opportunities are maximized through the
incorporation of technology into the criminal justice organization, for example, when offenders
are tracked, records have it that most of them do what is expected of them. When offenders
follow the rules laid down, society realizes safety and peace, a disposition that makes the firm
accomplish its objectives. Threats are minimized by the approach brought by technology, and
technically, this is an investment that helps reduce the attribute of housing inmates in congested
areas since members on parole/probation can be traced with ease.
Maruschak, L. M., & Parks, E. (2012). Probation and parole in the United States,
2011. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of
Justice Statistics.
Paparozzi, M., & DeMichele, M. (2008). Probation and Parole: Overworked, Misunderstood, and
Under‐Appreciated: But Why? The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 47(3), 275-296.
Schaefer, L., & Williamson, H. (2017). Probation and parole case management as opportunityreduction supervision. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 56(7), 452-472.
Williams, K. M., Wormith, J. S., Bonta, J., & Sitarenios, G. (2017). The use of meta-analysis to
compare and select offender risk instruments: A commentary on Singh, Grann, and Fazel
(2011). International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 16(1), 1-15.
Stephanie M. Clapper
The Performance Report for the American Parole and Probation Association
Instructor- Kenneth Lang
Southern New Hampshire University
March 1, 2020
Performance report for the parole and probation association
The American Parole and Probation association’s vision is; ”to rehabilitate and reintegrate
persons on community-based corrections for peace and social justice.” The organization’s main
goals are; providing a cheaper option for first-time criminal offender’s correction and preventing
recidivism while promoting their transformation. According to a cohort study conducted in the
United States, the recidivism rate has had a 20% drop in the past seven years. In the year 2005,
only 48% released from prisons returned by the year 2008, and in 2012, only 37% of those
released returned in prison by the year 2015. Additionally, according to this report, the released
prisoners were 13 %( once in five years), less likely to return to prison. This shows that the
probation or parole system has had an impact on reducing the recidivism rate as stated in its
mission and goals. The association has also effectively worked on its goal to make the parole
system cheaper than incarceration. According to a report by the United States Administrative
courts in the year 2016, detainment of an offender before and after the trial was eight times more
costly than enrolling him or her in a parole system. Additionally, the costs were also high for
enrolling the offender in a residential reentry center. The costs were compiled to be; an average
of $ 31842 for detaining an offender awaiting trial,$ 34770 for imprisoning an offender after
trial,$ 29280, placing an offender in a residential entry and $ 4026 for supervising someone in
the community awaiting trial and finally,$ 4392 for supervising someone in the community after
sentencing annually (DeMichele & Payne, 2018).
Despite the average cost per individual being low for parole services, and the recidivism
rate has reduced, there is a cause of alarm with statistics showing that 350,000 people in the
United States are likely to be re-incarcerated. The main cause of the re-incarceration is argued to
be, harsh terms, strict supervision and surveillance in the community paroles. This has resulted in
the parolees exiting and more likely to find their way back to prisons and jails after committing
minor offenses such as using drugs and breaking curfews. Among the various reasons which
demand to be addressed to reduce parolees exit include conditions that stipulate that they have; a
permanent education and job, contribute for their supervision fee, pay for drug tests and submit
the results to the parole officer, seek permission for changing the area of residence and before
traveling. Some conditions are very minor such as not getting pregnant and seating at the front
seat of the car. This demands a revision to ensure that those under parole are not reincarnated for
petty offenses (Travis, 2017).
Schaefer & Williamson, (2017) suggest that to reduce the re-incarceration rate, policies
should be changed to enable the offenders to receive special treatment for drug use rather than
being jailed or imprisoned in institutions that do not take care of their special needs. Schaefer &
Williamson, (2017) further suggest that the parole systems should be designed to factor in the
needs of the drug users and the mentally ill rather than pushing them to prisons. The two main
recommendations suited for reforming the parole system include; restricting the parole system to
enable the early release of those serving virtual life sentences and reducing strict supervision.
The specific recommendations to reform the parole system include; increasing accessibility of
time credit systems, introducing provisional policies for more prisoners to be granted paroles and
reducing unnecessary conditions to cater more to the needs and risks of the parolees. Frequent
reassessment of the parolees by the officers to minimize restrictive conditions after improvement
and shortening the time taken in parole is also paramount. Finally, the court should stop using the
parole system as the remedy for handling small offenses such as lack of payment of fine or other
technical offenses (Schaefer & Williamson, 2017).
DeMichele, M., & Payne, B. (2018). Taking officer time seriously: A study of the daily activities
of probation officers. Probation Journal, 65(1), 39-60.
Travis III, L. (2017). Probation, Parole, and Community Corrections. In Introduction to Criminal
Justice (pp. 379-404). Routledge.
Schaefer, L., & Williamson, H. (2017). Probation and parole case management as opportunityreduction supervision. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 56(7), 452-472.

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