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APA Format

Appendix

Header

Title Page

Citation Page

Numbered Pages

30 Page Minimum


Grading Rubric for the Completed Proposals


Student’s Name: ________ ________ _____

Required

Content

Absent

Insufficient

1

Slightly

Provided/Correct

2

Somewhat

Provided/Correct

3

Mostly

Adequate

4

Sufficiently

Provided

5

APA Style Title Page

Running Head & Page Numbers

Importance of Investigating

APA Style Citations in Text

Flow of Content

Subject-Verb Agreement

Punctuation & Paragraphs

Correct word use & jargon Free

Accuracy of Statements

Theory/Model Identified

Research Question

Major Variables Identified

Major Hypotheses

APA Style Reference List

Appendices in APA style

Total Score

APA Title Page Requirements for Students

Running Head is included on the Title Page

The running head is an abbreviated version of the paper title that appears at the top of every page to identify it for readers. The running head should contain a maximum of 50 characters, counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words as characters. If the title is already 50 characters or fewer, the full title can be used as the running head. Avoid using abbreviations in the running head; however, the ampersand symbol (&) may be used rather than “and” if desired. (Association, 20191001, p. 37)

Write the running head in the page header, flush left, in all-capital letters, across from the right-aligned page number. Use the same running head on every page, including the title page; do not include the label “Running head” to identify the running head on any page (Association, 20191001, p. 37)

page number (also included on all pages; see Section 2.18). Flush Right on the same line as the Running Head

Title of the paper (see Section 2.4);

The title should summarize the main idea of the paper simply and, if possible, in a way that is engaging for readers. For research papers, it should be a concise statement of the main topic of the research and should identify the variables or theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them. Although there is no prescribed limit for title length in APA Style, authors are encouraged to keep their titles focused and succinct. Avoid words that serve no purpose; they increase the title length and can mislead indexers. For example, the words “method” and “results” do not normally appear in a title, nor should such phrases as “a study of” or “an experimental investigation of.” (Association, 20191001, p. 32)

Name of each author of the paper (the byline; see Section 1.22 for determining the order of authorship and Section 2.5 for formatting the byline);

Affiliation for each author, typically the university attended (including the name of any department or division; see Section 2.6);

Rather than course number and name, indicate that “This thesis proposal is in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Bachelor’s Degree in Psychology;”

Instructor name);

Date, written in the month, date, and year format used in your country (usually November 4, 2020, or 4 November 2020; we recommend spelling out the month.

(Association, 20191001, p. 30)

Association, A. P. (20191001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition. [[VitalSource Bookshelf version]]. Retrieved from vbk://9781433832185

Dissertations or theses are typically required of graduate students, but undergraduate students completing advanced research projects may write similar types of papers. Academic institutions or departments have detailed guidelines for how to format and write dissertations and theses, and the requirements and acceptable format vary by discipline. Some dissertations and theses are hundreds of pages long and contain thorough literature reviews and exhaustive reference lists, whereas others follow a multiple-article format consisting of several shorter, related papers that are intended for individual publication. See Section 12.1 for guidance on adapting a dissertation or thesis into a journal article.

As mentioned in the introduction to this manual, most of the guidelines in the Publication Manual can be applied to student papers. However, because the scope of what constitutes a student paper is broad and flexible, and because students submit papers to their academic institutions rather than to an APA journal, we do not designate formal requirements for the nature or contents of an APA Style student paper. Thus, questions about paper length, required sections, and so forth are best answered by the instructor or institution setting the assignment. Students should follow the guidelines and requirements developed by their instructors, departments, and/or academic institutions when writing papers, including dissertations and theses; these guidelines and requirements may entail adaptations of or additions to the APA Style guidelines described in this manual. We encourage writers, instructors, departments, and academic institutions using APA Style outside of the journal publication context to adapt APA Style to fit their needs. (Association, 20191001, p. 10)

Association, A. P. (20191001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition. [[VitalSource Bookshelf version]]. Retrieved from vbk://9781433832185

 Parenthetical and Narrative Citations

In-text citations have two formats: parenthetical and narrative. In parenthetical citations, the author name and publication date (or equivalent information; see Section 9.12) appear in parentheses. In narrative citations, this information is incorporated into the text as part of the sentence.

Parenthetical Citation. Both the author and the date, separated by a comma, appear in parentheses for a parenthetical citation. A parenthetical citation can appear within or at the end of a sentence. When a parenthetical citation is at the end of a sentence, put the period or other end punctuation after the closing parenthesis.

Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public’s perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).

If other text appears with the parenthetical citation, use commas around the year.

(see Koehler, 2016, for more detail)

When text and a citation appear together in parentheses, use a semicolon to separate the citation from the text; do not use parentheses within parentheses.

(e.g., falsely balanced news coverage; Koehler, 2016)

Narrative Citation. The author appears in running text and the date appears in parentheses immediately after the author name for a narrative citation.

Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

In rare cases, the author and date might both appear in the narrative. In this case, do not use parentheses.

In 2016, Koehler noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage. (Association, 20191001, pp. 262-263)

It is best to paraphrase sources (see Sections 8.23–8.24) rather than directly quoting them because paraphrasing allows you to fit material to the context of your paper and writing style. (Association, 20191001, p. 270)

Short Quotations (Fewer Than 40 Words) (Association, 20191001, p. 271)

When quoting directly, always provide the author, year, and page number of the quotation in the in-text citation in either parenthetical or narrative format (see Section 8.11). (Association, 20191001, p. 270)

Block Quotations (40 Words or More) (Association, 20191001, p. 272)

Do not use quotation marks to enclose a block quotation. Start a block quotation on a new line and indent the whole block 0.5 in. from the left margin. If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line of each subsequent paragraph an additional 0.5 in. Double-space the entire block quotation; do not add extra space before or after it. Either (a) cite the source in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation or (b) cite the author and year in the narrative before the quotation and place only the page number in parentheses after the quotation’s final punctuation. Do not add a period after the closing parenthesis in either case. (Association, 20191001, p. 272)

Block quotation with parenthetical citation:

Researchers have studied how people talk to themselves:

Inner speech is a paradoxical phenomenon. It is an experience that is central to many people’s everyday lives, and yet it presents considerable challenges to any effort to study it scientifically. Nevertheless, a wide range of methodologies and approaches have combined to shed light on the subjective experience of inner speech and its cognitive and neural underpinnings. (Alderson-Day & Fernyhough, 2015, p. 957)

Block quotation with narrative citation:

Flores et al. (2018) described how they addressed potential researcher bias when working with an intersectional community of transgender people of color:

Everyone on the research team belonged to a stigmatized group but also held privileged identities. Throughout the research process, we attended to the ways in which our privileged and oppressed identities may have influenced the research process, findings, and presentation of results. (p. 311)

Block quotation consisting of two paragraphs:

Regarding implications for chronic biases in expectation formation,

in order to accurately estimate whether people are likely to form positive or negative expectations on any given occasion, it is necessary to go beyond simply considering chronic individual differences and identify the factors that make people more likely to form expectations in line with one bias or the other.

The present research sheds light on this issue by identifying a crucial distinction in the operation of these two trait biases in expectation formation. Specifically, people’s valence weighting biases and self-beliefs about the future appear to shape expectations via qualitatively distinct processes. (Niese et al., 2019, p. 210) (Association, 20191001, pp. 272-273)

Citing Multiple Works

When citing multiple works parenthetically, place the citations in alphabetical order, separating them with semicolons. Listing both parenthetical in-text citations and reference list entries in alphabetical order helps readers locate and retrieve works because they are listed in the same order in both places.

(Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017) (Association, 20191001, p. 263)

Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations

The format of the author element of the in-text citation changes depending on the number of authors and is abbreviated in some cases. See Table 8.1 for examples of the basic in-text citation styles.

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation.

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus “et al.” in every citation, including the first citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity (see Section 8.18). (Association, 20191001, p. 266)

Appendices

In general, an appendix is appropriate for materials that are relatively brief and easily presented in print format. Some examples of material suitable for an appendix are (a) lists of stimulus materials (e.g., those used in psycholinguistic research); (b) instructions to participants; (c) tests, scales, or inventories developed for the study being reported; (d) detailed descriptions of complex equipment; (e) detailed demographic descriptions of subpopulations in the study; and (f) other detailed or complex reporting items.

Format. Begin each appendix on a separate page after any references, footnotes, tables, and figures. Give each appendix a label and a title. If a paper has one appendix, label it “Appendix”; if a paper has more than one appendix, label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., “Appendix A,” “Appendix B”) in the order in which it is mentioned in the text. Each appendix should be mentioned (called out) at least once in the text by its label (e.g., “see Appendix A”). The appendix title should describe its contents. Place the appendix label and title in bold and centered on separate lines at the top of the page on which the appendix begins.

Excerpt from current edition of the APA Manual

10.16 Webpages and Websites

Use the webpages and websites category if there is no other reference category that fits and the work has no parent or overarching publication (e.g., journal, blog, conference proceedings) other than the website itself (see Section 9.2). If you cite multiple webpages from a website, create a reference for each. To mention a website in general, do not create a reference list entry or an in-text citation. Instead, include the name of the website in the text and provide the URL in parentheses (see Section 8.22 for an example).

For help in determining the author of a webpage or website reference, including how the author can be inferred from context or found on an “about us” or acknowledgments page, see Example 113 as well as Section 9.7. Provide the most specific date possible (see Section 9.15 for information on how to handle updated dates or reviewed dates)—for example, a year, month, and day; year and month; or year only. When the author name and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element. Include a retrieval date only when the content is designed to change over time and the page is not archived (see Section 9.16).

Use the template shown next to construct references for webpages or websites.

Author

Date

Title

Source

Website name

URL

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.

Name of Group.

(2020).

(2020, August).

(2020, September 28).

(n.d.).

Title of work

Site Name

https://xxxxxx

Retrieved December 22, 2020, from https://xxxxx

110. Webpage on a news website

Avramova, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

Bologna, C. (2018, June 27). What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost.https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/what-happens-mind-body-homesick_us_5b201ebde4b09d7a3d77eee1

Parenthetical citations: (Avramova, 2019; Bologna, 2018)

Narrative citations: Avramova (2019) and Bologna (2018)

Use this format for articles published in online news sources (e.g., BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, MSNBC, Reuters, Salon, Vox). To cite articles from online magazines or newspapers, see Examples 15 and 16.

111. Webpage on a website with a group author

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en/

Parenthetical citations: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018; World Health Organization, 2018)

Narrative citations: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2018) and World Health Organization (2018)

When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

112. Webpage on a website with an individual author

Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 29). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic. http://www.ethicsguidebook.ac.uk/EthicsPrinciples

Parenthetical citation: (Martin Lillie, 2016)

Narrative citation: Martin Lillie (2016)

113. Webpage on a website with no date

Boddy, J., Neumann, T., Jennings, S., Morrow, V., Alderson, P., Rees, R., & Gibson, W. (n.d.). Ethics principles. The Research Ethics Guidebook: A Resource for Social Scientists. http://www.ethicsguidebook.ac.uk/EthicsPrinciples

National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika. https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/pages/what-employers-should-do-to-protect-rns-from-zika

Parenthetical citations: (Boddy et al., n.d.; National Nurses United, n.d.)

Narrative citations: Boddy et al. (n.d.) and National Nurses United (n.d.)

· In the Boddy et al. example, the authors are listed on the acknowledgments page of the site (see Section 9.7 for more on determining the author).

· When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

114. Webpage on a website with a retrieval date

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 3, 2019, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

Parenthetical citation: (U.S. Census Bureau, n.d.)

Narrative citation: U.S. Census Bureau (n.d.)

· When the author and site name are the same, omit the site name from the source element.

· Include a retrieval date because the contents of the page are designed to change over time and the page itself is not archived (see Section 9.16). (Association, 20191001, pp. 350-352)

Association, A. P. (20191001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th Edition. [[VitalSource Bookshelf version]]. Retrieved from vbk://9781433832185 Always check citation for accuracy before use.


Deciding on Which Statistical Test to Use

1) What type of quantitative research strategy was used?

A) Experimental or Quasi-Experimental

B) Nonexperimental, Ex post Facto, Correlational

2) How many independent variables, if experimental, are in your investigation?

3) If experimental, is your design a between groups, within groups, or mixed/match group design?

4) How many predictor variables, if nonexperimental etc., do you have in your investigation?

5) What is the measurement scale (Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, or Ratio) of your operational definitions?

· In SPSS interval and ratio data are combined and noted as continuous

· Likert Scales are interval level data



Experiments or Quasi-Experimental

One Independent Variable where there is simply one experimental condition and one control condition or where there are two levels of experimental conditions. And, The scale of measurement for the dependent variable is either interval or ratio. Then, you could use the T-Test for independent groups


Example
: You hypothesize that participants exposed to Intervention A (Experimental Condition) will report significantly less anxiety than those exposed to a placebo control condition.

a) There are two groups where the participants were randomly assigned to Intervention A or Placebo and the measure you use for the dependent variable is either interval or ratio

The T-Test for independent groups could be used.

· T-Test for Dependent Groups is used if matching is used for assigning participants to groups

· Wilcoxon Paired-Sample Test is used when the DV is ordinal (rank data)

b) Instead of simply having a placebo control group, your are interested in finding out which of two experimental conditions result in significant change in the dependent variable but also want to use a placebo to rule out psychological accommodations as a potentially confounding factor.


Example
: You hypothesize that Intervention A will result in a statistically significant decrease in anxiety in comparison to Intervention B and Placebo (or no intervention group). This is a Single Factor-Multiple Conditions design where there are actually three conditions (levels of the IV).

a) Three conditions eliminates the T-Test as the statistic of choice. T-Tests are only appropriate for comparing two groups. Trying to use multiple T-Tests would actually raise the alpha level from .05 to.15 because you would conduct three separate analyses of the data and doing so is unacceptable.

b) Instead, you would use One-Way ANOVA, where one-way indicates that there is one IV If the One-Way ANOVA indicates there is a statistically significant difference in the DV between the three groups, you must then find out where that difference is. To do so, you would run a post-hoc statistical test. You could select one of from the list of post-hoc tests found on this website. (https://www.statisticshowto.com/probability-and-statistics/statistics-definitions/post-hoc/ ) The decision then becomes which one to use. Scheffe’s Method, Tukey’s Test and Dunnett’s Correction have been used the most by our students in the past. The post-hoc test is found in SPSS and you would simply indicate by checking the appropriate box that you would want that test to be run along with the ANOVA

Note: Both the T-Test and ANOVA require that the IV be nominal/categorical. Keep this in mind because sometimes interval or ratio level data are divided at the median (the median split) when the research strategy was nonexperimental and scores on some measure (For instance a depression scale) are split in half or thirds in order to run a T-Test or ANOVA. The DV is some other measured factor (for example, the number of cigarettes smoked in a month or the amount of money spent online)

The problem with using the median split or dividing the distribution of IV scores into thirds is that doing so does not truly differentiate between high, low, and medium levels of depression. Statistically, if you desired to differentiate between high and low levels of depression, you would calculate the standard deviation and select participants who scored two standard deviations above and below. Only those persons who exceeded two standard deviations above and those who fell below two standard deviations from the mean would comprise the two groups needed for comparison using the T-Test. This would require a large pool of potential participants having completed the screening measure of the IV in order for there to be adequate numbers of persons falling below and above two standards deviations from the mean.


Factorial Designs
– When an experiment investigates two or more independent variables, then one is using a factorial design. Such designs are identified like so:

· 2 X 2 Factorial design (Indicates that there are two independent variables and that there are two levels(conditions) that have been established(manipulated) by the experimenter for each of the variables.

· 3 X 3 X 4 Factorial design ( indicates three IVs, the first and second IV have three levels each and the third IV has 4 levels)

· The more IVs in an experiment that uses a between subjects design will require an increasing number of participants. For example, if each cell of the between subjects design needs to have 25 participants, then a 2 x 2 factorial design would require 100 participants to have been randomly assigned to the four conditions. If, you use a 3 x 3 x 4 factorial – between subjects design, then there are 36 conditions that would require 900 participants.

· Using a mixed/match factorial design where the first IV is a subject variable such as religion (Protestant, Catholic, Muslim) that is used to select and match participants relative to the remaining conditions, then fewer than 900 participants would be required. Mixed designs require fewer participants, as do Within Subjects Designs, in comparison to Between Subjects Designs.

Statistical Analysis of Factorial Designs

ANOVA (F-Test) or Multifactor Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) is used. ANOVA is used when there is one DV and MANOVA can be used when there are multiple DVs

· One-Way ANOVA there are two or more levels of one IV, but when we have a factorial design there are more than one IV and the number of IVs are reflected in which ANOVA is indicated as having been used for analyzing the data. Two-Way ANOVA is sues when there are two IVs, Three-Way ANOVA is used when there are four IVs and so forth. MANOVA is specified similarly.

· If the research design is a within subjects research design, then either T-Test for repeated measures (sometimes referred to as T-Test for gain scores) or the ANOVA for repeated measures is what can be used.

Statistical Analysis of Matched/Mixed Factorial Designs (Designs that incorporate both between and within comparisons)

· Data that is interval or ratio and there are two factors would require a two-way, mixed design ANOVA (same as a two-factor, mixed design analysis of variance)


Nominal and Ordinal Level data
most often require the use of nonparametric statistics that are similar to the parametric statistics. (If there are just two categories (i.e., male and female, or African American and European American then one can still use parametric statistics. If there are more than two categories, then the categories can be converted to dummy variables in order to use parametric statistics (i.e., African American, Hispanic American, European American could be converted into three groups of African American compared to Hispanic American combined with European American, Hispanic American compared to African American combined with European American, and European American compared to African American combined with Hispanic American)

Chi Square can be used for two group comparisons when the DV is categorical. This statistic indicates the likelihood of a statistically significant larger number (or lessor number) of participants falling into one of the two categories/conditions/levels.

Two-Variable Chi-Square Test of Independence is used when there are two IVs with each IV having two or more levels and the DV is a frequency count

Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test is another nonparametric statistic that can be used when two levels of the IV are measured by an instrument that is ordinal (rank ordered). (example: a study where two treatments are being compared and interest is in whether participants show improvement or decline, the sign test can determine whether the changes are consistently in one direction or the other to a statistically significant degree.


Statistical Analysis of Correlational Investigations



Studies where only two factors being compared

:

Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) is used when the variables are normally distributed and are measured on an interval or ratio scale.

Point Biserial Correlation Coefficient (rpb) is used when one variable is continuous (interval or ratio) and the other variable is binary (two categories).

Spearman Rho Correlation Coefficient (p) is used when data is ordinal. Is interpreted the same way as Pearson r.

The Phi Coefficient is used when both variables are genuine dichotomies but the Pearson Correlation Coefficient can also be used

Eta Correlation is used when the relationship between two variables is curvilinear



Multivariate Correlational Studies

:


Multiple Regression
is used when you have two or more predictor variables and a single criterion variable (In SPSS the terms independent and dependent variables are used when setting up your database. However, in writing your findings out in a report, thesis, or dissertation, you should identify factors that are the predictor factors and indicate what the criterion variable is.)


Additional Multivariate Analyses taught in Graduate school

· Factor Analysis

· Canonical Correlation

· Discriminant Analysis

· Path Analysis

· Structural Equation Modeling


Analysis of Qualitative Data

Interviews and Focus Groups can be audio or video recorded. Written notes taken during the recording can be compared with the verbatim transcripts one must make. The written notes can capture pertinent information that may be missed on the recordings but aid in substantiating noticeable characteristics and behaviors associated with certain respondents that come to the attention of the facilitator. These notes aid in describing the context of the data gathering session. The verbatim transcripts are subjected to thematic analysis. Thematic Analysis is the identification of themes or major ideas expressed. This type of analysis can also be used for analyzing written documents, one’s own and others’ field notes, technical papers, and newspaper articles. Sometimes it is useful to train assistants as to extrapolating themes and gauging the reliability of themes identified by the assistants.


Required Sections of the Research Proposal for Senior Seminar

The required sections of the research proposal pertains only to the major sections. There are to be no deviations from what is required! There are four required sections for your proposal:

1)
The title page
– The title of your research must conform to APA style just as the remainder of the paper must be.

2)
The Introduction
– Do not provide the heading “Introduction.” The introduction page has the Running Head (the abbreviated title that appears on each page of your document) The full title of your proposal is the heading used before you begin writing your introduction. For your proposal, the introduction must be a page-and-a-half or two pages maximum.

The introduction must communicate the importance of undertaking the proposed investigation. Providing statistics relative to the impact that the phenomena has had (e.g.,., homicide statistics, rates of spousal abuse, suicide rates,…); or evidence that researchers remain confounded about what factors are operative in given situations (e.g., Researchers continue to dispute the factors involved in the decisions police officers make in cases of unarmed police shootings); or there remains debate between which of several theories may account for a given phenomenon (e.g., Racial discord has been theorized to result from polemics about race associated with social learning or as a consequence of competition for limited resources). How you express importance is contingent upon what you plan to focus your research upon. Each of the examples would require citations in text to support the respective assertions.

The introduction must include the theory or model that you intend to use, along with a succinct statement of the research question and main hypothesis. The research question is broader in scope than the hypothesis. The hypothesis is specific to the main variables that are to be studied. One only states the directional or non-directional hypothesis, not the null hypothesis for the main factors of the investigation (e.g., It is hypothesized that attitudes toward social justice are significantly related to intentions to vote and that personality and familial factors will significantly moderate the relationship between attitudes toward social justice and intentions to vote.). In the example, the variables identified had to have been discussed within the introduction. If the introduction had only referred to attitudes toward social justice and intentions to vote, that would be fine but the hypothesis involving personality and familial factors could not be made in the introduction. The main hypothesis may be expounded upon or expanded to include other factors after having written the literature review. So, if the literature review provides justification for the inclusion of personality and familial factors as possible significant moderators, than that hypothesis can be identified later in the proposal.

The introduction must include a statement of the research method that is to be used (e.g., a mixed method approach shall be used to determine the relationship between…).

3)
Literature Review
is the next major heading that should be centered. The literature review is best written with subheadings that aid in organizing the literature you have read and wish to write about. The manner in which you write the entire proposal and each section is in an inverted triangle manner. You begin broadly and bring your writing into focus upon the actual investigation you are proposing to conduct. Attention to transitioning from paragraph to paragraph and subsection to subsection must be made so that your writing flows smoothly. The literature review serves multiple purposes:

a) It is a justification or rationale for the factors you will use;

b) It is a justification for the method you propose; it is a justification for the operational definitions you propose to employ;

c) It communicates the degree to which you understand the phenomenon you intend to investigate;

d) And, it conveys that you have developed some expertise in the topic of concern.

The search for articles that you deem useful takes time, patience, critical thought and documentation. Not every article you look at that appears to have the same topic will be useful. Some articles may depart significantly from what you intend to investigate. For example, you may be interested in looking at the self-regulation that students exercise in college. Self-regulation has been studies by other researchers relative to academic decision-making and delay of gratification. Yet, your interest may be in relation to the self-regulation of emotional responses and actions. Therefore, the literature that investigates self-regulation academically or in regard to delay of gratification will be of little or no use to you.

The actual writing of the literature review is quite similar to comparing and contrasting the work undertaken by multiple researchers. Some of the selected articles will be expounded upon with respect to the theory/theories that drove their investigation. Some of your citations may necessitate your going in depth with respect to the method section. For example, if you intend to use college age students and have review several studies that differ with respect to the ages of the participants, you would want to include that bit of information. If several studies employed methods or operational definitions of variables such that internal validity of the study may be more or less questionable for one (or some) in comparison to another (or others). You would write a paragraph or so about how their methods and findings either compliment or challenge each other. You must decide upon what and how much to write relative to the articles you have read. The decision of writing must be done with the intent to justify or provide adequate reasoning for what you intend to do. The goal is to communicate clearly what the literature has informed you about the phenomenon. The audience you are communicating that to are seasoned researchers. So you are to communicate what is necessary.


DO NOT PLAGARIZE and DO NOT QUOTE UNNECESARILY
State what you have read in your own words. You do not need to rely on the words of the authors of your articles. Quotations are reserved for statements where the importance would be lost if you were to change the wording.

4)
Method
is the next major heading (not methodology or methods) that is centered and written in future tense. The method section is where you will have clearly identified subsections – Participants, materials and procedures are what is typically added as subheadings that are left justified.

a) Participants is the subheading under which you will indicate the targeted number of participants; the manner in which they will be selected; the targeted characteristics of the participants; the targeted local(s) for selecting your sample; and any screening criteria for not allowing participation

b) Materials is where you identify the specific operational definitions (measures and or experimental apparatus) for you variables. You are to report the reliability and validity of your operational definitions. You will provide detailed descriptions of each one of each separately. Citations of articles where the instruments have been used and reliability and validity can be substantiated must be included in this subsection of the method section.

c) Procedure is the explicit detailing of what will occur during the gathering of data for your study. Specific directions given to participants. Whether they are randomly assigned to groups. How informed consent is obtained, if possible. How you intend to do any validity checks and debrief participants is to be included.

5)
Results
is the last major section of your proposal. This is where you will indicate the method of analysis you will use and why. Those who undertake a qualitative investigation will identify how they intend to analyze their obtained information qualitatively. Those who have undertaken a quantitative investigation will identify the statistical analysis they will use to analyze the data. Those who undertake a mixed methods investigation will do bot.

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