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First work: 2 pages. Read what I learned from the class and takeaway

Second work: 300 words Initial Post and 200 words reply

Second work: 250 words Initial Post and two reply. (2 copies) ( Graduate Students)

And like where the organization is at. So for example, for the boys and Girls Club, I put together the board reports and I run the Finance Committee. For MHS, put together word reports and run the Finance Committee, so I’m performing the same role, but I am, you know, two different people. To give an example of my own organization and some dark times, we had a 2008 the overall management as IED Director and Executive director really ran the organization into the ground and the board stepped in to fire that person to get. Finances. Second line and they still are very heavily involved. We’ve grown a lot since then, and now my treasurer only weighs in when necessary. Advisory. If I drink. So I guess when I’m what I wanna know is, UM, when you’re the treasurer. What is your responsibility when it comes to the organization’s ability to put together the budget compared to when you’re the CFO and making sure that the budget and finances are are prepared? Right. So in a perfect world, the organization creates the budget and the board approves it. That flex is based on the organization’s ability to do that. And it also matters so if you have a really high caliber Treasurer, they might not have time to do that and the organization might be able to step up to the place that is, you know, like in the family people work together to make an outcome happen. Who enter network Foley, a treasurer with an organization making you know less than 250,000, might be putting the books together, making the budget. There probably is a Finance Committee at that point. It’s a really small board. They’re just getting things moving. Jennifer, how? How do you know all of your filing responsibilities and particularly as a smaller organization or a startup organization? Is there a place now if you’re well established, you know you have to do a 990 and a public, you know, raising money form and maybe a uniform? Financial report for the state, but. How do you know what you’re obligated to do? Based on the size and type of organization. It’s not well spelled out, so the state does have requirements based on your gross revenue and the Secretary of State has requirements to statement existing. So the the message Ernie General mandate, the forms PC for all organizations that are tax expecting them. And then when you get up, so I think it’s 200,000 in gross revenue, even need reviews, financial thing, which will cost about $5000 from a public accounting firm. At 500,000 in gross revenue, you do need that auto visual statement plus your for CC. And they also require 990 or 990EZ. For the IRS. The IRS requires a form 990, and if you’re less than 50,000, move revenue. When you get up to I’m confusing the 2:50 or the 200,000 in revenues. Yeah, it’s 250. Have a full four 990 with a review of financial statements. Or the other way around. Later in my career, at the public accounting firm my I was working more in the higher. So I don’t. I don’t have that on my head. And you also have to file an annual report with the Secretary of State. With your system listing of board members is due November 15th or November 1st every year. And those are the big ones. So if you don’t file your form PC after three years, the Massachusetts the message, you can come in and shut you down if you don’t file your annual report with the Secretary of State for three years, the Secretary of State can come in and shut you down. And your financial statements and your 990EZ are in tandem with those filings? Those are requirements that they aren’t being the small things that can get in the way indent. I don’t have any questions regarding the terminology she’s been using, like 990 PCs. Yeah alright, so if you wouldn’t mind kind of defining what each one of those reports are just so that they have an understanding of what you’re talking about. Sure. So you’re Aires filing, which is your federal tax report, even though nonprofits don’t pay taxes, they’re informational returns, right? So that runs the gamut of the 990 M, which is the smallest city. It’s called the postcard. The 990EZ is about 5 pages long. Information return which includes your first revenue, your first expenses. Your program expenses and has a board list. And if you have any contributions, you get into a scheduled be. Then you move up to your 990 full form, which has many supporting schedules here related party transactions which you have, you give grants to certain people that are over a dollar values received contributions. It’s a little more complicated. All of those forms a board member can put together, but at a certain point for the organization, it is important to bring in a firm to do your your audit for independent audit. Or movie. The difference between audited financial statements versus reviewed financial statements is the dollar value of your gross revenue and the amount of work involved. So with reviewed financial statements, it’s mostly just. Auditors compiling that information and presenting it in a way that. It’s the uniform standard and. Weighing in on certain things so they wanna check in and make sure that you have board policies that are appropriate and that you’re following the accrual method of accounting versus a cash basis. And then audited financial statements, there’s a full risk assessment procedures. Otherwise, the form piece fee is the state form which. Ask you about your. Your top five employees with a making their benefit plans and your. It’s more about your related party transactions and so now with. And if you’re interested, you can go to the mass attorney general and look up any organization you want. Open for public inspection. So from. kind of small organisations wanting to start them up They look at the I nines to make sure that those have been completed correctly. They’re gonna look at payroll for example. They may ask for us to provide them with timesheets and a few different employees so they can see if we’re paying them. We’re saying we’re paying them. They wanna need a person to see that there’s not a fake person person on a payroll. So it’s really important that again, although it may not be the most fun part of our jobs being a fiscally but also organizational responsible when it comes to personnel records, payroll records, finance and funding, it’s really important that you have. Good team members or strong volunteers that are consistent. So Joy talked a little bit about how her organization is about 100,000, so she would do a review. She would not do a full. Audited, you know financials. It would be a review, but she does have to submit credible, accurate documents to be able to be reviewed and submitted to whatever the governing organization is. That’s right, she does not have a bookkeeper or accountant on staff, but she does have an accountant on her board. So just kind of give you a little bit of perspective. The YWCA and the boys and Girls Club of Worcester have full financial people on staff, but also on the board. That’s really helpful. Good for checks and balance. Right. But also it’s helpful because say if my account was out. For a month, because of medical leave or whatever, I would be able to still be able to hopefully seamlessly continue all of that work by baby utilizing our our Treasurer. Does that make sense? So it’s really good when you can have bold, but we also if you only have $100,000 budget, there’s no way you would also have. An accountant on staff at the time. So. You know those that’s tricky. That would be very tricky, but it’s really important. But just just a reminder that the audit also includes personnel files because I’ve seen some companies get in trouble because of not having I9 filled out correctly, documentation that’s required that payroll taxes. Yeah, are being properly taken out of the pay and submitted to the Department of Labor unemployment Insurance, I mean. There are rules and regs in the last thing you wanna do is not understand what the reporting responsibilities are. And it would also include benefits we have to make sure that everyone who is eligible has been offered those benefits. So there’s a lot of things they look at and again, not everyone, maybe if it’s a smaller nonprofit, they might not have an HR person plus and in countless, they may have an account that also does some of the HR work. But that can be also tricky ’cause it that might not be something they’re really skilled in, but sometimes that happens. So just so you had some really good questions that you submitted that may help you with your project, you have other things to talk to. I know she was gonna talk a little bit about how to build a budget, so I know some of you were asking about that. So, Jennifer, I didn’t know if you could explain a little bit about how you would go about building a budget. It looks like Alex when, where the question if we weren’t. I’d rather take questions. And then both have questions, Allison. Sure. So the reading we had to go through kind of talked about having like board designated funds that are kind of restricted. I kind of was wondering if you kind of talk about like how much Control Board tab over funding? OK, I will hold that delete end. Dan. Yeah. So. Hi I heard several times you know smaller than stations, so small number graphic. So what? Does like. What does UM, what defines a small numbered profit? Is it the budget? Is it, you know, the amount of employees? You know what is? What is it? I’m just trying to understand that well, but I cannot do that now. Is the budget question. Yeah. Do that. So already relationship have budgets, you might get to the point where you’re UST thousand and you know that that 50,000 is coming in from 3 granters mainly. So you get maybe 45,000 of your 50,000 front St people and then the other 5000 is just smaller contributions that come in from your family and friends and other supporters. In the beginning, you know that they’re getting 50,000 and. Whatever program you’re doing, maybe you’re collecting money so that you can give. Maybe you have a program and you’re helping kids. In an after school program, somehow there are a lot of regulations around this particular example, but they, you know, you take this 50,000 in your helping a classroom with students. So your budget is then that maybe you think that you can with your $50,000 help 100K. When you get into your budgeting process. You say you know you’re planning on helping 100 kids. Do you need to buy 100 bananas? But maybe only 15 could show up. It’s kind of irresponsible to buy 100 bananas if you only have 15 kids that are showing up and at the same time, if you have 250 kids, show up one, you have to make sure that you can accept those those kids ’cause you might not have the capacity for handle that. That level of programming, but two. Those kids are gonna be hungry if you only have 100 bananas. So there’s a lot of budgeting that happens on paper that you know, like if this happens then I can do this, which you should only budget based on the money that you have or you know is coming in sort of thing. So you don’t want to make commitment to not be able to pay for them which is similar to our personal financial situation. But you also want to remain inflexible and how your boards running flexible on you know if your program is really grows, you might have that board member. That goes why did you spend money buying 250 bananas? I don’t understand. And you go will look at the impact that we had in the housing program grew and staff that needed to be hired and things like that. Small organizations are flexible in that way, and they they can ebb and flow based on changes. Whereas a $5 million organization might not notice that changes much, flexing from 100 students to 250. Although that is still pretty big. Kind of sums up your budgeting process when you’re a little bigger, you might take your prior year results. And copy them to this year that you’re planning for you. Say, do we need to hire another program person? Or maybe we’re in a position where we can hire an HR person? I think that I could hire an HR person underneath when we hit. Maybe 5 million in revenue and we’re at about 3 now, but it takes a lot if you think that $5 million is a big number for your organization to hit for a year. That’s kind of what you’re looking at. At the boys and Girls Club, they have about 50 to 60 employees and they have, I think an HR person plus live and. Marked with. Where is MHS organization but we just have the Executive director and in my office and I have accepted. We have a large number of transactions, but it’s the. No example is going to set your situation perfectly and you have to adapt. Also just consider that if you had someone employed, you do have to offer them health insurance idea certain extent at a lower employment level they can rely on Medicare myself, but it’s more ideal that you can offer them private coverage. Please see that that might be increasing by 7% in spring impact for the year. We do have to absorb most of that. You also have your record compensation insurance. You have your payroll taxes, you have any other benefits you provide your staff like of 401K or 403D match. Those things, if you say like. Oh, I wanna hire one person, I think their their salary might be 35,000 just. The standards are pretty low, just know that you’re gonna spend an extra 10 to $15,000 in ancillary that support that higher. And I think it’s really important when you do hire people that they understand that maybe you’re only able at this time salary wise to pay 35,000. But until then, because it benefits, you’re actually paying them 50,000. So I think sometimes people don’t actually realize that it’s been really interesting some of my, especially if they’re. Getting new to profession or this might be their first professional job. They don’t realize that how much health insurance costs or dental or. Matching the 403 B plan and so I think making sure you really explain that to all of your colleagues. So they see that the investment actually is not just the salary, it’s also the benefits. And I will say in general, nonprofits provide pretty strong benefits as we realize that we’re not always able to pay the salaries at other. For profit, entities are able to, so we really do work hard in providing those benefits and average percentage of benefits is 25. Yeah. If it’s a part time person, it may be closer to 10 to 15, but $40,000 position. With the 15% for with the 25% added on, that is the real cost of that person. Stuff. What is it possible for us to like? Like get professional. Excuse me. Like, is it possible for us to, like, get their volunteer? I’m done. Yeah. I mean, you’re gonna have to put some money into them still, right? Training orientation, supporting them. Maybe out of pocket expenses in some point. Some point you get to a place like joy and I’ll talk to you about the startup that the volunteer is no longer just gonna be able to operate the nonprofit with the board that you get to a professional staff person. Then again, the pay is commensurate with the size and scope of the job, size of the organization, and scope of the job. So a couple of well known volunteer organizations are most would be like the Girl Scouts. Does that make sense? So there. Staff, but they have hundreds. I mean, so that’s it’s considered a volunteer organization because the majority of people. Yes, as long as you insure them, you give them the adequate space. You cover their out of pocket expenses so they may be free to salary and benefits, but you have to make sure that they’re covered and protected as you would in an employee, even though you’re not paying them a salary with benefits. And like I said, free is never free. Often volunteers may require more training and support because they’re not able to always be on site. They’re not always working with you. Does that make sense? Or so you know, I think it’s really important to recognize that, yes, sometimes it can save you money, but it’s not necessary. Will save you time. Which means just as valuable. And you may wanna think at that point, should you be part of another organization offering that program that has a mission alignment versus starting up all of these reporting requirements and. And so those are the kinds of thinking. You really need to do. Angela. Their organization. But then I have activity and income generating activity for which I get money injected. My overhead costs overhead costs. So I’m wondering, how is that a business and a for profit business? Kind of a profit, but then it is mainly to get money to put in the nonprofit and I’m wondering how that related this, how how would I report that joy? Do you wanna try that ’cause? I also have some thoughts on that. Is that unrelated business income? So I actually had some organizations that I added that. Group that they need, they represented a certain minority and they wanted to start with a cleaning company that supports the nonprofit, and they did against our recommendations. And I believe we paid 25% tax on any revenue that you raised through an unrelated business. So at that point the time that you put into it the worst involved. Takes away from your mission. It’s. If it’s really, I mean, if it’s a, you know you’re gonna take your business and put it into your nonprofit. If it’s another business that wants to contribute their income, that’s another source, right? Yes, exactly. So if. If your local cleaners down the road wanted to donate money to your organization that the tax write up for them and it’s revenue for you. If you do have earned income with organization, Stan has. That’s totally fine. I just have to relate to your business. The YMCA often has fee for service for certain programs that helps them pay for some of their like they do use PIN Act, which is a wonderful middle school summer program that they’re able to do that one, for example for free because they they have. To utilize some of the fee for service. A program that they provide families or individuals or for example, they have a wonderful facility for fitness. And so again there’s fees for that, which then they’re able to use to fund other programs if their fees are over their cost, right, not every health and fitness is, but no, I’m trying to give you examples. Profit for profit within and find your mission related that don’t have so. So it’s still a non profit even though they they there there is some way for them to help pay for some of their programs that they want to keep you there at low price or free because it might meet their mission. And that’s not really good example of sustainability, but if you’re running a cleaning company and then you’re running this non profit and you are running this cleaning company and putting the income, that is definitely as Joy said, unrelated business that you have to pay taxes on to get it into that non profit. Whereas the the organization or the company that was providing those services as a for profit would get attacked right after giving you that money. So it works much better to have the organization. Another question that was emailed to us how does your mission impact or inform your budget? So with nonprofits, it’s generally responsible to budget to zero out before your depreciation. So like my organization, we run a deficit budget by 275,000. Which looks really terrible, but after you add back your depreciation, it’s a 00. Can you explain that? Yes. So depreciation is that. New Buy a pickup truck to perform your program services. That pickup truck is probably in this climate and economy $70,000. Something is you think that pickup truck is going to last seven years, which is a useful life on a vehicle. So you then have to take $10,000 as an expense every year against your bottom line as appreciation. It’s not going anywhere, but it’s. Allocated to for you to put towards another vehicle down the road, correct. Yes, no. I wouldn’t think of it that way. It’s you have just heard that expense like you spent 70,000 on your vehicle. It’s not in that year you take that 70,000 expense. Do you recognize the expense rate ugly over the course of this useful life? You can then hopefully sell it at the end of it useful life if you’re not, show using it and you’d have a gain on sales and asset or the locks on the sales and asset. Another question that was emailed to us. When you do a program budget. Why do you still have to add management, general and other hope overhead experiences like spences even though it’s just a program? Is there a check your percentage? I don’t know. I’m confused. Anytime I’ve seen it done. If you get 500,000 from the state of Massachusetts, you then to allow a uniform financial report and you’re allowed to apply 5% of overhead against your program expenses to meet. Do not to say you only extend. But they’re good enough. They only spend $450,000 on the program, and you need to meet them. 500,000 because the state wants you to spend. Not a penny left, but not a penny more of the money that they’ve given you. They used that budget overhead since meet them where their expectations are. So Jennifer, I’ll give you another example that I think they might have meant when they ask this question is sometimes foundations will ask you for a program budget and they’ll ask you how much of it will be overhead, how much will be management right ’cause they are giving you an opportunity to pull in some. But As for a reporting for your state and federal? But they’re they’re giving you an olive branch would say we want to give you money, but we understand that it costs you money to perform these programs, and we want it. I also just said. Backtrack. I promised that want to find a small organization? Yes, I didn’t answer that with the budgeting. A small organization is all about perspective, so you could have a small organization with $5000 in revenue, and it’s generally based on your revenue total per year. That being said, you could have a very large organization with volunteers that is within a community that doesn’t turn over a lot of cash every year, but you have a great impact and I would call that a larger organization as well. Other questions? Donors will give money, and so it’s like restricted. And then for specific programs or things, I have stipulations. What does it tend to be? What does the ratio on like restricted versus unrestricted? Quads tend to be. Jennifer, could you hear that question? Now that it’s the the relation between restricted funding and unrestricted, and then we can pull in the board designated category as well. Clear question. So your unrestricted encounters, any money that comes into you without strings attached. Your restricting sun is revenue that comes in that is still nervous stricted, so I’m giving you $5000 because I want you to plant yellow tulips. I’m the one of your organization to make children happy. If you don’t plant yellow tulips, I can call that money back and I can make you pay it back. You’re bored. Is a category in the middle, so the border can designate like the boys boys. Note Club has designated some funding to be just a rainy day fund because rainy days happened so that money is not donor restricted for districted and thus the board can be restricted and it is categorized as unrestricted income for financial reporting purposes. And there’s not a racial, so to speak, the best money to get is unrestricted. But if a donor, if you’re pitching to a donor, a particular program, you that’s OK as long as you know that you can honor it. And then you are going to take that money to cover all your costs or partner with other dollars. But the, you know, unrestricted is the best money because then that way you get to decide where you need it and when someone else asked about surpluses. Trump go with God. Those are somehow some over revenues and expenses, so that plus at the bottom is generally where a board puts it aside as a board restricted for you know emergencies or capital. If you have no other way to fund it. So exactly in the middle, you’re you’re you’re bored is restricting that. But it came in as probably unrestricted or you were able to generate it from having more revenue than expenses. And I also know there’s been some confusion regarding like when it says board restrictions that mean the board. Yes, support will make that decision, but often is. The executive director will say I know we have 500,000 right now and our board restricted fund, but we really are are are two vans that we used to transport our kids to and from events and and and to pick up food and everything they have fallen apart. I’m going to ask and highly recommend that we move 70,000 so we are able to purchase two vans. So I just so you all know that the board listens and supports the work of the organization. So. So yes, they’re going to make a decision, but it’s informed by the needs that the executive director explained. Does that make sense? So they generally don’t want it to fill who? No. Like, you know, like if you have a deficit, unless there’s a specific reason. But it’s you make the case as the leader to have them release that those dollars to be able to continue operations or increase operations. So there’s always that connection, there’s connectivity. It’s not just that we’re going to release some money, it’s based on the information that the executive director provides them. Does that make sense? So again, there’s always a partnership and the board could say, you know what, Liz? That is concerning about not having a band, but we why don’t we just buy one fan right now and let’s see where we’re at in six months and then we if if we’re still doing OK, let’s get that other van, does that make sense that there’s a give and take and sometimes there’s compromise. But at least on the boards that I’ve either been on a board. Where I hoped I have supported these every director or as a sector, I’ve always felt like the board listens. They try to be a supportive as possible and they do understand that because you’re there every day is exactly director, that you may have a better understanding of the day, the day means and the day-to-day operations. Does that make sense so? Again, there’s that compromise, but there’s that listening and working together. Other questions? I’m so many questions. Yeah, I had another question about the restricted funding they talked about like temporary leadership funds and how like restrictions can be met and then the funds can be released like if those restrictions were meant to like have the money spent for a particular purpose. I’m kind of confused as to how those could be released. Right though the. December clear affected and permanently restricted the kind of Dunaway and blue of net assets with donor restrictions and net assets without donor restrictions. Just the language in the last few years, however. There are different types of donor restrictions you can have. Time expected funding. So say I’m gonna give you $90,000 to pay for your director of X in the next three years. You would then recognize that funding over three years pending you and hire the person that I wanted you to hire where that position. Every time. If they said I’m gonna give you. $90,000 to support your programming. You can kind of assume that I’m expending $90,000 of expenses for the year so I can be restrict that. Thinking about it, but you can have somebody give you to giving the same dollar value and $90,000. You can put that in a separate bank account. And. Tracy expenses against it and draw it down and then transfer money into your operating account and consider it that way. From my financial reporting. Or if you looked at someone financial statements, I’m trying to think of a good example. They would have their unrestricted funding categories so that you have your profit and your expenses or your your revenue, your expenses and then you have this other category that’s restricted revenue that’s come in and what you’ve released. And then there’s a note in the financial statement note later on that that explains what you release and what purposes you met. Brandon, this happens later on in the organization. You don’t. You don’t go from zero to the general. In a few years. There’s also permanently restricted the restarting and down there or something like that. You send those that money to an investment account and you never see it again. We need two general. Like this permanently restricted, but I highly advise against that. However, I I just want to bring up with restricted funding, so if a donor comes to you and says I want you to create this beautiful program and I will give you all this money and it just looks amazing at supplying this guy saying that, you know, that you can’t meet those restrictions, you have to say no to the money. Miller. And and just be very aware and upfront and say, you know, this is so wonderful. I I hope that you can support my …

Social Determinants of Health 

Post a discussion forum response to the question below (300 word minimum), and respond to 1 student (200 word minimum) and use 2 references APA format (your book and article). NOTE: Please be sure to reference the Discussion Rubric for how points are determined. Your initial response to the question must be posted by Wednesday at 11:59 PM. A response to one peer is required before Sunday at 11:59 PM when the assignment closes. I don’t want you to state, “I agree” without providing facts to argue your point of view. 

The Social Determinants of Health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live and age. They have a large influence on our health. It also determines health inequities, which is the unfair and avoidable health difference between different groups of people In this video we take a look at the social determinants of health. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PH4JYfF4Ns

Discussion:  How do you think social determinants it impact health in California? What about Fresno? 

Reply:

Courteney Lynn Kasper

Monday21 Feb at 21:46

Manage discussion entry

The social determinants of health can be based on many things in everyday life. Based on where people are born and raised and what resources they are exposed to will determine their health. Someone who is raised in a low income home in a small town that doesn’t offer a lot of education on wellbeing, can end up with life threatening illnesses. People with higher education and income are able to get better doctors to improve their health status. Well educated people can also know ways to avoid certain habits that cause health problems. For example, being educated on the effects of smoking. Even average people who have access to cable will be exposed to commercials that highlight the long term effects of cigarettes and vaping. Whereas someone who lives in a low income home doesn’t always have access to that TV exposure, causing them to miss important information about dangerous effects of smoking. Rural communities tend to be tied to low income communities and also don’t have access to physicians or specialists. This can lead to them having to travel, or never getting help due to not getting correct information on the illness. Low income people can sometimes deny help due to not having health insurance. Environmental aspects can also effects someone’s health because exposure to certain chemicals cause issues later on in life such as exposure to asbestos. Not all people have access to remove that from their home and have to deal with the effects because they can afford to replace it. Diets and food habits can affects ones health, having an unbalanced diet can lead to obesity and diabetes. Low income areas are also related to high crime and substance abuse. Many factors lead to low income a low socioeconomic statuses having poorer health. Environments, education, and income can determine ones health. 

Hayes, T. O. N., Tara O’Neill HayesDirector of Human Welfare PolicyTara O’Neill Hayes is the Director of Human Welfare Policy at the American Action Forum., “Year One”:    Assessing the Biden Regulatory Record Against Recent AdministrationsDan Goldbeck, Goldbeck, D., 2021: The Year in RegulationDan Bosch, Bosch, D., The Total Cost of U.S. TariffsTom Lee, Lee, T., The Vaccine and Testing Mandate’s Effect on the Labor Market   Isabel Soto, & Soto, I. (2018, September 4). Understanding the social determinants of health. AAF. Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://www.americanactionforum.org/research/understanding-the-social-determinants-of-health/

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