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SYG 2323 MID TERM Course

______ ____Intro To Criminology Learning Outcomes

In General, always be able to present a review of the key insights from any classroom video or activity

connected to each chapter. Also, know the key terms and be able to explore the critical thinking

questions at the end of each chapter. Upon completion of the assigned material, you should be able to:

CHAPTER 1: The Changing Boundaries of Criminology

1. Discuss the relationship between terrorism and seven transnational crimes.

2. Explain the reach of criminology as a reflection of the greater process of globalization.

3. Discuss the evolution of the field of criminology.

4. Explain why criminology can be described as a multi-discipline.

5. Explain the difference between deviance and crime.

6. Compare and contrast the consensus model and the conflict model.

CHAPTER 2: Counting Crime and Measuring Criminal Behavior

1. Discuss the seven basic ingredients of crime.

2. Explain how a defense can negate one or more of the basic ingredients of crime.

3. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods of collecting data.

4. Compare and contrast the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Crime Victimization

Survey (NCVS).

5. Explain the difference between the aging-out phenomenon and the life-course perspective.

6. Discuss how sex, class and race relate to crime.

CHAPTER 3: Schools of Thought Throughout History

1. Compare and contrast the classical school and the positivist school of criminology.

2. Discuss the elements of Beccaria’s plan for a rational and just criminal justice system.

3. Discuss the challenges to Lombrosian theory and their significance.

4. Discuss the somatotype school of criminology.

5. Explain possible implications of biological determinism.


6. Discuss the concept of psychological and sociological determinism.

7. Discuss Durkheim’s concept of anomie in a homogeneous versus a heterogeneous society.

CHAPTER 4: Psychological and Biological Perspectives

1. Explain why researchers have sought to study identical and fraternal twins in an attempt to test for a

relationship between genetics and criminality.

2. Explain the biochemical and neurophysical factors that relate to criminality.

3. Explain the roles of the id, the ego, and the superego.

4. Discuss Kohlberg’s three phases of moral development, and the respective effect on behavior.

5. Discuss the seven important features of attachment according to Bowlby.

6. Explain how social learning theory applies to delinquent behavior.

7. Discuss the evolving definition of mental illness, and how this affects the criminal justice system.

CHAPTER 5: Strain and Cultural Deviance Theories (not covered)

1. Explain the concept of anomie.

2. Compare and contrast the various types of strain theory.

3. Compare and contrast social disorganization theory, differential association theory, and culture

conflict theory.

CHAPTER 7: Social Control Theory

1. Explain what social control theory.

2. Discuss the four social bonds that Hirschi posited that promote socialization and conformity.

3. Explain Matza’s concept of drift.

4. Compare and contrast the inner and outer containment mechanisms as set forth in Reckless’

containment theory.

5. Explain the evolving forms and roles of social control in developmental theory.


CHAPTER 8: Labeling, Conflict, and Radical Theories

1. Discuss the basic assumptions of labeling theory.

2. Compare or contrast the consensus and conflict models of criminal lawbreaking.

3. Explain the origin of radical criminology.

4. Discuss some of the critical perspectives that have emerged over the past decade, including radical

feminist theory, left realism, abolitionist and anarchist criminology, and peacemaking criminology.



Social Control Theory
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013, 2018, & 2022); Siegel
(2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018, & 2022).


Social Control theory
Social control theory focuses on techniques and strategies that regulate human behavior leading
to conformity or obedience to society’s rules.

Influences (family & school, religious beliefs, moral values, friends, & beliefs regarding



Theories of Social Control

Explore the legal system, particularly law

Powerful groups

Social & economic government directives


Focus on informal systems

Data based on individuals

Examines one’s internal control system

Travis Hirschi
Social Bonds

Attachment: to parents, teachers, peers

Commitment: to conventional lines of action
◦ Educational goals

Involvement: with activities that promote the interests of society
◦ Homework or after school programs

Beliefs: acceptance of societies values
◦ Belief that law are fair

Hirshi’s Hypothesis was that Stronger the bonds = less delinquency & weaker bonds = increased
risk of delinquency

Scientific Research shows support:
◦ Hirshi conducted a self-report survey on 4,077 high school students in CA.



Critics of Hirschi’s Bond theory
Criticism of social bond theory

◦ The influence of friendship
◦ Drug abuser stick together

◦ Failure to achieve
◦ Failing in school = few legitimate means

◦ Deviant parents and peers
◦ Gang member also create social bonds.

◦ Mistaken causal order
◦ Deviance may brake parental bonds

◦ Hirschi also counters the critics
◦ These bonds are weak and only created out of need – drug abuser will turn on one another.

Gresham Sykes and David Matza
Delinquency and Drift

◦ Most deviants also hold value in social norms.

◦ Must use tech. of neutralization to drift in and out of criminality.

Observation of neutralization:
◦ Criminals sometimes voice guilt over their illegal acts.

◦ Offenders frequently respect and admire honest, law abiding people (entertainers, & preachers).

◦ Criminal define whom they can victimize

◦ Criminals are not immune to the demands of conformity.
◦ They go to school, family functions and church.



Gresham Sykes and David Matza
Delinquency and Drift

Techniques of neutralization:
◦ Denial of Responsibility

◦ Not my fault – accident

◦ Denial of Injury – No one hurt

◦ Denial of the Victim – Victim is no saint

◦ Condemnation of the Condemner
◦ Everyone has done worse things

◦ Appeal to Higher Loyalties
◦ Couldn’t let my friends down

◦ Studies show most adolescents know when they deviate
◦ So they use neutralization techniques to justify their behavior.

◦ Critics: Many adolescents have no empathy.
◦ Crimes are most often intraracial and within familiar areas.

Albert J. Reiss
Delinquency is the result of

◦ A failure to internalize socially accepted and prescribed norms of behavior.

◦ A breakdown of internal controls

◦ A lack of social rules that prescribe behavior in the family, school, and other important social groups.

Social Disorganization and crime

What if you grew up in the slums with your mother selling heroin out of your apartment
◦ Where would you be?

While slums create more crime some individuals find a greater stake in conformity and embrace



Walter Reckless
Containment Theory

Containment Theory assumes that for every individual there exists a containing external
structure and a protective internal structure, both of which provide defense, protection, or
insulation against delinquency.

◦ Family, laws, and peers

◦ Self concept, ego and conscience

Walter Reckless
Outer Containment

A role that provides a guide for a persons activities (i.e. Teacher/student).

A set of reasonable limits and responsibilities (i.e. Roles defined).

An opportunity for the individual to achieve status.
◦ Promotion or graduation

Cohesion among members of a group including joint activity and togetherness.
◦ Integrated and inclusive

A set of belongingness (i.e. identification with the group).

Identification with one or more persons within the group.

Provisions for supplying alternative ways and means of satisfaction when one or more ways are



Walter Reckless
Inner Containment

A good self-concept

Self control

A strong ego

A well developed conscience

A high frustration tolerance

A high sense of responsibility

General Theory of Crime
Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson

Designed General Theory to explain and individuals propensity to commit crime.

Assumes that the offenders have little control over their own behavior and desires.

Crime is a function of poor self-control
◦ Poor child rearing, poor attachments

◦ People with low self control may drink too much, smoke and have unwanted pregnancies.



Theory Informed Policy
Delinquency prevention through teaching values.

Family – role model study habits.

School –bond youth to conventional systems

Neighborhood – federally funded programs can reduce crime
◦ Examples: crisis intervention centers,

◦ and mediation between schools and youth, youth and police and youth and gang intervention.



Chapter 3:
Schools of Thought Throughout History

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013 & 2018);
Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015 & 2018).

Classical Criminology (Rational Choice theory)

vs. Positivism

Classical Criminology (Rational Choice Theory)
Cesare Beccaria

• -On Crimes and Punishment

• -Father of Modern Criminology

• -Believed in Utilitarianism & Free



Beccaria’s Principles

• 1. Laws should be used to maintain the social contract.

• 2. Only legislators should create laws.

• 3. Judges should impose punishment only in accordance with the law.

• 4. Judges should not interpret the laws.

• 5. Punishment should be based on the pleasure/pain principle.

• 6. Punishment should be based on the act, not the actor.

Beccaria’s Principles

• 7. The punishment should be determined by the crime.

• 8. Punishment should be prompt and effective.

• 9. All people should be treated equally.

• 10. Capital punishment should be abolished.

• 11. The use of torture to gain confessions should be abolished.

• 12. It is better to prevent crimes than to punish them



Jeremey Bentham’s

• Bentham was concerned with achieving the “greatest happiness of
the greatest number”.

• Utilitarianism assumes all human actions are calculated in
accordance with their likelihood of bringing happiness (pleasure) or
unhappiness (pain).

• Bentham proposed the felicific Calculus (human calculators).
• Human behavior based on happiness

• Punishment as deterrent – certainty over severity

Positivist Criminology

• While classical criminologist – believe people rational choose to
commit crime.

• Positivist criminologist see criminal behavior stemming from three
• Biological determinism

• Psychological determinism

• Sociological determinism
• August Comte (1798-1857) French sociologist said real knowledge of social

phenomena has to be based on positivist (scientific) approach.

• At first didn’t take off.



Positivist & Biology
physical reasons for criminality

• Charles Darwin
• Wrote “Origin of Species” (1859)

• Says Animals evolved over time – survival of the fittest.

• In 1871 says he has traced humans origin to apes.

• Future biologist will build on Darwin’s work
• Red hair, cripples, and other would soon be viewed with suspicion.

• If two people were accused of a crime the uglier of them did it.

• Bio – criminal are born not made and can be identified by irregularities.

Biological Determinism

• Physiognomy:
• The study of facial feature and

their relation to human behavior

• Giambattisti della Porta (1535-
• Believed criminals had large lips &

sharp vision

• Phrenology:
• Posited that bumps on the head

were indications of
psychological propensities.

• Franz Joseph Gall (1776-1832)



Cesare Lombroso
tied Comte’s positivism to Darwin’s evolutionism

• Theory of the “Born Criminal”

• States that criminals are a lower form of
life nearer to their ape-like ancestors than
non-criminals in traits.

• Born criminals have atavistic stigmata,
physical feature of creatures at an earlier
stage of development before they
become fully human.
• Explore the born criminal women –


Cesare Lombroso Cont’d

• Insane Criminals are not criminals from birth, they become criminals
as a result of some change in their brain which interferes with their
ability to distinguish between right and wrong.

• Criminoloids make up an ambiguous group that includes habitual
criminals, criminals by passion, and other diverse types.
• Lombroso’s theories kept alive most by criticism – not agreement

• Except Nazi Anthropologist



Enrico Ferri

• Best know of Lombroso’s associates

• Attacked the classical doctrine of free-will
• Says criminals cannot be held responsible as they do not choose but are

driven to commit crime.
• Yet said society must be protected from them

• Which is the purpose of criminal law and the penal code
• Death penalty for those unfit for society.

• Was more interested in controlling crime through preventive measures:
state control of manufacture of weapons, inexpensive housing, and better
street lighting.

• Argued that crime was cause by social, economic, and political

Raffaele Garofalo

• Law Professor also rejected free-will

• Garofalo followed Lombroso’s work but found many short comings

• Traced the roots of criminal behavior to psychological features which
he called “moral anomalies”.
• Not physical feature as Lombroso thought.

• Natural crimes are those that offend the basic moral sentiments of
probity (respect for property of others ) and piety (revulsion against
the infliction of suffering on others).

• Supported the death penalty to rid society of its maladapted



Challenges to Lombrosian Theory

• Charles Goring – studies 3,000 convicts and compared them to
Oxford and Cambridge University students, hospital patients, and
• Says facial features and size of head better predictor of Scottish vs

English educators
• Not professor vs criminal.

• Goring’s assistant Karl Pearson
• Successfully disputed Lombroso’s claim of the “Born Criminal”.

William Sheldon’s Somatotypes
1970s return to biology

• 1. Endomorph – asthenic, schizophrenia

• 2. Mesomorph – athletic, schizophrenia

• 3. Ectomorph – Pyknic, manic depression
• He argued that mesomorph tended to be involved in illegal behavior

more then others.



Richard Dougdale
& Inherited Criminality

• Studied the Jukes family

• Ada Jukes, “mother of criminals”

• Of the 1,000 descendants Dougdale found 280 paupers, 60 thieves, 7
murderers, 40 other criminals, 40 persons with venereal disease, and 50

• Dougdale argued that they were transmitting a degenerate trait to the next
• US Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell said in 1927 “It is better for all the

world if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime…society
can prevent those who are manifesting unfit…Three generations of imbeciles
are enough” (Adler, Muller, & Laufer, 2018, p. 63).

• Some states supported sterilization of habitual offenders.


• While much of the earlier determinist focused on physical feature.

• Isaac Ray (1807-1881) focused on “Moral Insanity”. He questioned if
we could hold criminal legally responsible when they committed
crimes without intent.

• Henry Mandsley (1835-1918) believed for many crime is an outlet “in
which their unsound tendencies are discharged, they would go mad if
they were not criminal” (Adler, Mueller, Laufer, 2018, p. 65).

• Later psychological IQ test ran out of favor when a study of criminals
scored higher then WWI Veterans.



Sociological Determinism

• Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) & Andre-Michel Guerry (1802-1860)
• Where among the first scholars to refute Beccaria’s free-will.

• It’s the environment not simply a choice.
• Poverty, age, sex, race and climate influence human behavior.

Gabriel Tarde
rejects Lombrosian Theory

• Sociological Determinism
• People are not born criminals – its social environmental factors

• Society causes criminality not decisions of individuals

• Focus on groups rather than individuals

• Poverty, age, sex, race, and climate.

• Learning criminal behavior based on Laws of Imitation.
• Interaction based on intensity and frequency

• Inferiors imitate superiors



cohesive vs contemporary society

• Consensus versus opposing structures

• Crime as a normal part of society

• Crime creates social solidarity
• When a cohesive society punishes its to reinforce social values (right &


• When modern (heterogeneous) societies punish the focus is on righting
a wrong done to the victim and reinstating social order.

• Anomie: Normlessness, a breakdown of social order as a result of a
loss of standards and values.



Chapter 4: Psychological & Biological
Perspectives (Trait Theory)

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013,
2018, 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018 &


Psychology explores psychosis as a cause of anti-social behavior and

Biology explores the physical explanation for psychotic and antisocial behavior.

Trait Theory: views criminality as abnormal products of psychological and
biological traits.

A Third factor: Social Environmental

Should the mentally ill be able to stand trail?

• Jared Lee Loughner story
• Oct. 2010 kicked out of college for outburst

• January 8, 2011 shot 19 including Congresswomen Gabrielle Gifford (6 died).

• May 25, 2011 ruled incompetent to stand trail

• June 26, 2011 removed from court for outburst.

• August 2012 deemed fit for trial.
• Sentence: life without parole.

• Should the mentally ill have access to guns?



Psychoanalytic Theory

• The psychoanalytic theory links criminality to three possible causes:
• A conscience so overbearing it arouses feelings of guilt.

• A conscience so weak it cannot control the individuals impulses.

• The need for immediate gratification

Sigmund Freud

• The 3 basic components of human psyche.
• Id: powerful urges and drives for gratification

• Ego: moderator between id and superego
• Immature with poor social skills

• Superego: moral code or conscience (moral standards)
• When week individuals don’t understand consequences of actions = criminality



Three Basic Principles of Psychologist Who Study Crime

• Actions and Behaviors of adults are understood in terms of childhood

• Behavior and unconscious motives are intertwined, this interaction
must be unraveled to understand criminality.

• Criminality is a representation of psychological conflict.

Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral Development Theory

• Moral Reasoning
• Pre-conventional level: Children’s moral rules and values consist of do’s and

don’ts to avoid punishment

• Conventional Level: Individuals believe in and adopt the values and rules of

• Post-conventional Level: Individuals examine customs and social rules based
on their own sense of human rights, moral principles and duties.



Social Learning Theory

• Delinquent behavior is learned through the same psychological
process as other behavior.

• Behavior is learned when it is reinforced or rewarded.

• Don’t reinforce bad behavior.

• Cognitive Theory
• How people perceive and mentally represent the world around them and

solve problems.

• Information Processing Theory
• How we store, encode, retrieve, and manipulate info to make decisions and

solve problems.

Observational Learning

• Albert Bandura says individuals learn violence and aggression through
behavior modeling.

• Children learn how to behave by fashioning their behavior after

• Mental Scripts:
• May learn improper scripts that individuals may or may not grow out of.



Instigators of Aggression

1, Aversive Instigators – conditions of life

2, Incentive Instigators – rewards $$$

3, Modeling Instigators – observed

4, Instructional Instigators – observed

5, Delusional Instigators – bizarre beliefs

Differential Association Reinforcement

• Ernest Burgess and Ronald Akers:
• Persistence of criminal behavior depend on whether or not it is rewarded or


• The most meaningful rewards and punishments come from important people:
peer group, family and so on.



Hans J. Eysenck
Conditioning Theory

• All human personality is seen in three dimensions
• Psychoticism: aggressive, egocentric, and impulsive.

• Extroversion: sensation-seeking, dominant and assertive.

• Neuroticism: low self-esteem, excessive anxiety, and wide mood swings.
• Extreme extroverts are at higher risk of antisocial behavior.

Mental Disorders and Crime

• Psychopathy, sociopathy, or antisocial personality:
• Personality characterized by the inability to learn form experience, lack of

warmth, and absence of guilt.

• Crime and Mental Illness
• Most dangerous are psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar.

• Related more toward assaults and arson.

• Schizophrenia
• Marked by hearing voices, seeing hallucinations, and inappropriate responses.

• Bipolar disorder
• Emotional disturbance with wide mood swings between elation and deep depression.




• The study of the physical aspects of psychological disorders.
• IQ Debate

• Nature versus Nurture debate
• Nature Theory: intelligence is largely determined genetically and its linked to

• Those with high IQ in bad environment avoid crime.

• Nurture Theory: intelligence is not inherited but is largely a product of the
• Low IQ maybe the result of environmental factors (family structure, education).
• High IQ in a good area may avoid crime because of resources.

• A bad neighborhood will not make a well adjusted commit crime.
• While a good neighborhood will not prevent maladjusted from crime.

Twin Studies

• Monoxygotic (MZ) Twins develop from a single egg that divides into
two embryos.

• Dizygotic (DZ) Twins develop from two separate eggs – fraternal.

• Johannes Lange found 10 of 13 pairs of identical twins – both twins
were criminal.
• While only 2 of 17 pairs of fraternal twins.

• Was this genetic or caused by social condition?

• Adoption Studies.



Biological Trait Theories

• The evolution of gender and crime
• Focuses on gender differences

• Females look for secure home, single stable nurturing man for survival.

• Survival of the gene pool
• Aggressive males mate with many partners lacking conscience and emotional bonding.

• Aggressive males have had the greatest impact on the gene pool
• Does this explain man’s history of war and violence?

XYY Syndrome

• The XYY male receives two chromosomes from his father.

• 1 in 1,000 males have this.

• Supposed to make males more aggressive, taller, and violent.

• Studies have discounted this theory.



Biochemical Factors

• Diet – kids and sugar, food additives and allergies
• Twinkie Defense (Dan White in 1979 sentence reduced to manslaughter)

• Brain tumors

• Hypoglycemia

• Hormones
• Androgen – male sex hormones like dopamine.
• Testosterone – most common androgen (natural high levels or animal based)
• Premenstrual syndrome – triggers female sex hormones
• Lead exposure – cause delinquency, schizophrenia
• Environmental contaminants: Lead, PCBs, air pollution can cause neurological

defects affecting IQ and behavior.



Chapter Two: Defining Crimes and
Measuring Criminal Behavior

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013,
2018 & 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018

& 2022).

Scared Straight Program – 1978 Rahway Max Prison

-Politically motivated –fit the get tough on crime bill

-Three year post experiment study shows evidence must be evidence based

-Criminologists embrace a systematic empirical study of the nature and extent of crime.

Example of successful criminology research based policy:

-Domestic violence research between 1981-82 shows police counseling and temporary separation was
not effective.

-Now there are more mandatory arrest being made.

7 Basic Requirements for an Act to be a Crime
Defense must prove failure of a basic requirement

• 1. The act requirement – mind & Body
• Conscious act not an unconscious act or reaction
• Not a status or condition

• 2. The legality requirement – prohibited by law
• Thoughts without action – no crime
• Choosing to not fill out sex registration forms – is a crime
• Good Samaritan?

• 3. The harm requirement

• 4. The causation requirement
• Behavior in question caused the harm – not a 3rd party

• 5. The mens rea requirement (guilty mind)

• 6. The concurrence requirement
• Must be a criminal act with criminal intent (Ex: striker – rock –window)
• Exceptions – felony murder

• 7. The punishment requirement – its must already exist



Criminal defense negates basic ingredients of

• Crime – must be known to the police

• Not all crimes reported are cleared

• DA will not always prosecute

• Defense negation of crime elements examples:
• Insanity defense; legality requirement lacking; duress, self-defense.

• State tries cases on behalf of the state
• Victims can file civil law suits for pain and suffering

Typologies of Crime

• The French created the following three categories accepted
• Felonies – severe

• Misdemeanors – minor

• Violation – fines

• As Criminologist we will also focus on the following
• Violent crime

• Crimes against property

• White collar and corporate crime

• Drug, alcohol and sex-related crime



Reasons for Measuring Crime

• Researchers collect and analyze data to test theories about why
people commit crime.

• Researchers and criminal justice agencies need to enhance their
knowledge of the characteristics of various types of offenses.

• Criminal justice agencies depend on certain information to facilitate
daily operations and anticipate future needs.

The Research Process

• Topic – research question

• Theory: is a set of principles that explain how 2 or more phenomena
are related
• May choose to use a hypothesis or not.

• Methodology (qualitative vs. quantitative)
• Will you use secondary data or primary data

• Analysis
• What did you do, findings, discussions and conclusions



Exploring and defining the Thesis Process

• Abstract

• Introduction

• Methodology – Analysis of secondary data

• Theory

• Methodology – Exploration of primary data

• Findings

• Discussion and Conclusions

• References

Methodologies used to Collect Primary Data on Crime

• 1. Survey Research
• And interviews

• 2. Experiments

• 3. Observation

• 4. Participant Observation

• 5. Case Studies



and interviews explored

• The systematic collection of respondents’ answers to questions asked
in questionnaires or interviews.

• Population

• Sample

• Random Sample


• An investigator introduces a change into a process and makes
measurements or observations in order to evaluate the effects of the

• Variables:
• Independent Variable A causes Dependent Variable B to Change

• Control Group
• Pretest and post test



Participant and Non-Participant Observation

• In participant observation the researcher may join and participate in
the activities of the group being studied.

• In observational research the researcher observes the group being
studies but is not a participant in the activities.

• This process may be used to study criminals, prisoners, prosecutors,
or police officers.

Case Studies

• A case study is an analysis of all pertinent aspects of one unit of study,
such as an individual, an institution, a group or a community.

• Sources of information may be life histories, biographies, diaries,
journals, letters, and other records.
• Edwin Sutherlands “The Professional Thief”



Ethics and Research in Criminology
researcher responsibilities studying “vulnerable populations”

• Should the results of interviews be published?

• If the research does not disclose names could the participant be
obstructing justice?

• Is there confidentiality for a criminal suspect?

• Does a researcher have to turn over his/her files if requested by the police
or court?

• Should criminologists be immune from prosecution?

• Is it possible to develop a technique that can ensure against identification
of the subjects in a file?
• Informed consent, avoid invasion of privacy
• Do no harm: mental, physical or financial harms

Major Sources of Crime Information

• Uniform Crime Report (UCR) – Part I and Part II offenses
• Published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation

• J. Edgar Hoover given permission in 1930 (FBI)

• Part II offenses
• 21 crimes (all non part I except traffic violations)

• Ex: fraud, embezzlement, weapons, vandalism, simple assaults, sex crimes, drugs,
gambling, disorderly conduct and vagrancy.

• National Crime Victimization Survey

• Self-Report Studies



FBI Part I Index Offenses

• Strengths
• Most consistent source of homicides and arrests

• Weakness
• Many crimes not reported, there are reporting errors, most drug crimes omitted, white collar crimes omitted.
• Does not differentiate between attempted and completed.
• Cleared only means an arrest was made.

Crimes against the person

Crimes against property
-Motor Vehicle Theft

Victimization Surveys

• National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)

• Measure the extent of crime by interviewing individuals about their
experiences as victims.

• Published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics

• 90,000 households, 160,000 people
• Cycle reports every three years.

• Covers time, place, offenders, weapons etc.

• Strengths:
• includes crimes not reported, careful sampling of gen. pop.

• Weakness: relies on victims memory and honesty (telescoping).
• One index crime not included- which one?



Self-Report Surveys

• A self-report study ask people to report their own criminal acts in a
confidential interview or, more commonly, on an anonymous

• These reports have demonstrated very high rates of law-violating behavior
by seemingly law-abiding people.
• Most violate some laws.

• Strengths:
• includes non reported crimes, substance abuse and personal information.

• Weakness:
• focus on petty crimes
• Honesty of self-reporting participants.

Crime Trends
• Crimes rose slowly between 1930-60.
• Rose fast from 1960-1980 and then dropped till 1984.
• Peeked: rose until 1991.
• Crimes have been decreasing since 1991.

• Between 2014 and 2018 there was a 4.7% increase in violent crimes with a 14.6%
decrease in property crimes (Adler, Mueller, & Laufer, 2022, p. 44).

• More crime happens in the Southern states.
• More crime in urban areas
• More victimization within five miles of home and in your own home
• 50% violent crimes happen between 6 a.m. – 6 p.m.

• 67% of sexual assaults, household larcenies, and 75% of motor vehicle theft happens
at night.

• While most juvenile crimes occur after school 3 p.m. – 7 p.m.



Age and Crime

• Peek Crimes years 16-24
• Siegel (2015) says 16 for property crime and

• 18 for violent crime

• Half of all arrest are of individual under age 25

• Juveniles account for 15% of all index crimes in 2006 at 8% of pop.
• 25% of larceny theft and 50% of all arson arrests.

• Arrest rates decline after age 30

Aging Out Vs. Life Course Perspectives

• Aging out phenomenon
• Too old for crime – employment and relationships.

• Life Course: environmental factors
• Class, poverty, unemployment, peers and opportunity

• Chronic Offenders – a study of Philadelphia youth born in 1945
• 1972 publication on the males (9,945)

• 35% contact with police by age 18, 46% of the offenders were one time offenders, 18% five or
more which was 6% of the total group studied know as the Chronic 6%.

• The females (14,000

• 14% police contact by age 18, of those 60% one time offenders, 33% repeat and 7% of total
group were chronic offenders

• Less violent crimes.



Sex and Crime

• Males commit more crimes than females at all ages

• Arrest ratio: 3:1 however, the gap is closing

• 1960s females accounted for only 11% of total arrests.
• 2013 textbook stated 23% and now its 35% (Adler, Mueller & Laufer, 2022).

• Female crimes are rising faster then the rate of boys.

• What Three offences do women commit more than men?
• Prostitution, shoplifting, and welfare fraud.

• Explanation: as women’s social, economic and political power increases so
has their criminal activity (movies: wonder women and star war Jedi).
• While more poor and more patriarchal families tend to restrict girls roles.

Race and Crime

• Blacks constitute 12.1% of USA pop. Yet 27% of all arrest for index
crimes (Adler, Mueller, & Laufer, 2022).
• 50% of black urban males are arrested for an index crime once in their

lifetime compared to 14% of white males.
• 18% of blacks serve some time in prison but only 3% of white males.
• Blacks have a higher risk of death do to violence.

• Debating the explanations:
• Does it represent a bias CJ system? Or do Blacks commit more crimes?
• While debates over class and crime remains controversial there is no debate

over the class of those in prison? Most made less then $5,600 before prison.
• Lower class commit more serious crimes (burglary, robbery, assaults and

sexual assaults).



Chapter 8:
Labeling, Conflict & Radical Theories
-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013, 2018,
& 2022); Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018. & 2022).

Labeling Theory
or Social Reaction Theory

• Labeling theorist began to explore how and why certain acts were
defined as criminal or deviant while others were not, and how and
why certain people were defined as criminal or deviant.

• Howard S. Becker
• Deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a

consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an
“offender”. The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been
applied, deviant behavior is behavior that people so label.

• When ones deviance is known they are segregated from society and labeled.
• This creates outsiders our outcasts.

• One begins to associate with others just like themselves.
• More people in society think and react to the outcaste as deviant.

• Ones self-image gradually changes.
• W. I. Thomas Theory



Frank Tannenbaum

Dramatization of Evil
• Criminals are created in a process of tagging, defining, segregating,

making conscious and self-conscious.

• It becomes a way of evoking the very traits that are complained of.

Edwin Lemert: Primary versus Secondary Deviance

• Primary deviation: initial deviant acts that bring on the first social
• These acts without labeling to not affect individual self-concept.

• Secondary deviation: the acts that follow societal response.
• The major concern is secondary deviance.

Edwin Schur
labeling theory

• Human behavior is deviant to the extent that it comes to be viewed
as involving a personally discreditable departure from a group’s
norms and expectations and elicits interpersonal and collective
reactions that serve to:
• “isolate”, “treat”, “correct”, or “punish” individuals engaged in such behavior.



Howard Becker
Moral Entrepreneurs make the rules

• Moral Entrepreneurs make the rules that define deviant behavior including

• The process becomes a political one pitting rule makers against rule

Labeling theory in application:

• Civil Rights movement – MLK

• Women’s liberation – voting and what job can I do

• Vietnam protesting, draft card burning
• Kent State 1970

• ACLU’s stance against racial profiling
• Black lives matter.

Empirical Evidence for Labeling
two studies

• Study One: 13 volunteers admitted into various mental hospitals.

• Study two: class and inequality in treatment of juvenile delinquency.
• Saints – owned cars, athletes, apologetic.

• Roughnecks – highly visible and outspoken.

• Once labeled part of a group, is it possible to exit?



Consensus Model

• Consensus Model assumes that member of society by and large agree
on what is right and wrong and that law is the codification of these
agreed-upon social values.

• The law is the mechanism to settle disputes that arise when
individuals stray too far from what the community considers
• We can say that an act is criminal when it offends strong and defined states of

collective conscience.

• When members of a society unite against a deviant they reaffirm their
commitment to shared values.

Conflict Theory
Karl Marx

• The conflict model assumes that laws do not exist for the collective
good, they represent the interests of specific groups that have the
power to get them enacted.

• The key concept in conflict theory is power.

• The laws have their origin in the interest of the few, these few shape
the values, and their values shape the laws.



Conflict Theory explored

• Primitive societies offered more consensus.

• Conflict: if there is consensus then
• Why are there so many crimes

• So much rebellion

• So many in prison

• Those with power work to keep the powerless at a disadvantage.

• Enforced constraint rather than cooperation holds society together.

Conflict exploration continued
• Forms of power used to control society

• Control over goods and services
• Unequal Education: creating drop out factories (school to prison pipelines).

• Economic power

• Police power, war power
• Police decide when to arrest, DA when to pursue charges, judges have discretion too.

• Political power

• Ideology (beliefs & values used to oppress)

• Society is in a constant state of conflict, one of the principles in which
an ongoing society depend on.
• Criminologist believe that one possible cause of crime can be linked to

economic, social and political disparity.



Marxist ideology:
Radical Theory, or Critical Criminology

• Marxist
• Capitalism breeds egocentricity, greed, and predatory behavior.
• History of class struggles: freeman and slave, lord and serf, oppressor and

• Bourgeoisie versus Proletariat.
• Exploitation of workers in pursuit of surplus value:

• Profits produced by laborers gained by business owners.

• Revolution is only thing to bring change (morally justifiable)

• Rusche & Kirscheimer made penologist aware that the severe and
cruel treatment of offenders had more to do with (lack in) value of
human life and the needs of the economy than with preventing

Radical Theory/critical criminology

• Richard Quinney (1973)
• The state is organized to serve capitalist ruling class

• Criminal law is used by ruling class to maintain social and economic order.

• Subordinate classes remain oppressed by any means necessary

• Solution – the collapse of capitalist societies

• Critics point out failing socialist societies
• Soviet Union, Poland, Germany and others.

• Quinney – a true Marxist state has not yet been attained, but the
ideal is worth pursuing.



Emerging Forms of Radical/Critical Criminology

• Radical Feminist Theory
• Explains both victimization and criminality among women in terms of gender

inequality, patriarchy, and the exploitation of women under capitalism.
• How does domestic violence relate to masculinity and “doing gender”?

• As women’s education access, political power and economic liberation rise
victimization decreases.

• Abolitionist – community based distribution of power/resources
• Return to communities to fix power differences.

• Anarchist Criminology
• Communities are destroyed by the state causing crime.

• Solution chaos.

Emerging Forms of Radical/Critical Criminology

• Peacemaking Criminology
• Purpose of criminology is to promote a peaceful, just society.
• Punitive crime control strategies are counterproductive.

• L. Tift and D. Sullivan first to write these views in 1980s.
• Harsh punishment increases crime and marginalization.

• Favors humanistic conflict resolution to prevent and control crime.
• We need to become connected and responsible to and for each other.

• Restorative Justice concept
• Nonpunitive strategies for prevention and control of crime.

• Failure of old punishment policies (67% recidivism rate).

• Requires that society address victims harms and needs, while holding the
offender accountable to right those harms. Involving victim. Offender and
community in a healing process.
• Goal is to achieve reconciliation



Chapter 1:
The Changing Boundaries of

-Slides and data in this outline are from Adler, Mueller, and Laufer (2007, 2013, 2018 & 2022);

Siegel (2015); and modified by Manning (2007, 2013, 2015, 2018 & 2022).

Exploring the need for criminologists

Criminology & the phenomenon of crime through
natural disasters.

• October 29, 2012 Sandy hits Jersey shore. Billions in damages,
hundreds of deaths.

• March 11, 2011 the most powerful earthquake hit Japan. Tens of
thousands of deaths. No civil unrest or looting—they waited with
civility for a fair distribution of limited supplies.

• January 12, 2010 a 7.0 earthquake hit Port au-Prince, Haiti. Approx.
316,000 dead and without a discernable police presence violence
erupted marked by looting and gang related gunfire.

• August 29, 2005, Katrina devastated New Orleans. Looter took over
the city and 1,500 police on search and rescue were reassigned to
restore oder.



Covid-19 Pandemic Issues in 2020

• Adler, Mueller and Laufer (2022) state that early on in 2020 it
appeared that the pandemic lockdowns and stay at home orders led
to a decrease in drug and violent crimes.
• However there was an increase in domestic violence.

• We will see later on the total cost of the pandemic resulting from stay at
home orders, masking and vaccination mandates (such as increases in mental
health issues and suicides rates).

Globalization Effects on criminology

• In past societies all produced their own goods.

• Today, worlds economy increasing becoming a “Global Village”.

• Globalization expands the need for criminologists to explore and find
solutions for evolving social issues.
• Economic, Human Rights, and Environmental crimes.



Human Trafficking and Globalization

• USA alone gets approx. 100,000 humans trafficked for illegal sex and
labor exploitation per year.
• Human trafficking is to the 21st Century what the cold war was to the 20th


• Sex Trafficking worldwide is over 20.9 million. 98% are women and
• 2 million children per year.

What Criminologists knew about these changing

• Criminologists knew looting was a stage after a natural disaster—due to past

• Criminologists understand globalization increases our risk to transnational crime
and shifting class structures within societies around the world (including our

• Do not be deceived by the media and their symbiotic relationship with
legislatures (Adler, Muller, & Laufer, 2022, p. 13).
• Police shootings, the global village & the econ., school to prison pipeline.
• Where should we focus as criminologists?

• Criminologists are needed to make better policies to protect society from the
harms of crime, from violence to fraud, corporate crimes, political and
transnational crimes.

• In all human activity deviance is possible.



Defining Terrorism
another changing boundary of criminology

• State Department: the premeditated, politically motivated violence
perpetrated against non-combatant agents, usually intended to
influence an audience.

• Adler: the use of threat of violence directed at people or
governments to punish them for past actions and/or to bring about a
change of policy which is to the terrorist’s liking.

Seven Forms of Transnational Criminality
Hub of Terrorism

• 1, Illicit Drug Trafficking
• Over 1 trillion in dirty money funds illegal activity including terrorism

• 2, Money Laundering
• Repeated movement of funds in unnumbered accounts. Clean money can be used in an open


• 3, Infiltration of Legal Business
• Fronts for terrorist operative to smuggle money, agents and supplies.

• 4, Computer Crime
• ISIS believed to have ability to carry out cyber attacks.

• 5, Illicit Arms Trafficking

• 6, Traffic in Persons
• Human trafficking used to make money. Refugee immigrants have infiltrated by terrorists.

• 7, Destruction of Cultural Property
• Terrorist like Lenin, Hitler, Taliban and ISIS destroy anything apposing their ideology.



Evolution of the Field of Criminology

• Criminology the term was coined in 1885
• By Raffaele Garofalo

• Concern is on the phenomenon of crime.

• Studying crime and criminality (nature, extent, cause and control of it).

• While Criminal Justice – a relatively new field of study
• 2 closely related fields

• Studying justice related concerns.
• Police, courts and corrections

Defining Criminology

• Edwin H. Sutherland: Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding
crime as a social phenomenon. It includes within its scope the
process of making laws, of breaking laws, and of reacting toward the
breaking of laws…The objective of criminology is the development of
a body of general and verified principles and of other types of
knowledge regarding this process of law, crime, and treatment or

• Criminologists: social scientists who collect and analyze data using
modern research methods (verified principles and logic not feelings).



Criminal Justice focus

• The structure, function, and decision processes of those agencies that
deal with the management and control of crime and criminal
offenders: policing, the courts and corrections.

Criminology is Multi-Disciplined
Classical School of thought vs Positivists

• Rational Choice/classical school – Beccaria

• Psychology

• Biologists

• Political Science – policy

• Anthropology – cultural conflict and values

• History

• Criminal Justice

• Sociologist – social environmental factors



Deviance and Crime explored

• Criminologist use the term

deviance to describe behavior
that violates social norms
including laws.

• A crime is any human behavior

that violates a criminal law and
is subject to punishment.

Deviance and Crime cont’d

• Who is most likely to be incarcerated?
• Those committing Deviant Acts or Criminal Acts

• Can deviance create social harm?

• Who has the power to determine significance to society?

• Terminology
• Felonies

• Misdemeanors

• Criminal law – by state on behalf of the state

• Civil law – personal loss, pain or suffering.



Society’s Reactions to Lawbreakers

• Centuries ago wayward entered gates of cities by day passing gallows.
• Or criminals were banished (outlawry) from communities as in the fairytale Little Red

Riding Hood.

• Today jails and prisons dot our countryside.

• Criminologists have influenced how we deal with lawbreakers for centuries.

• Criminological research shows how punishment has often been irrational,
arbitrary, emotional, politically motivated and counter productive.
• Why hasn’t society done a better job at crime prevention then?

• Criminologist are not politicians. Can’t make laws but through sound
research we can influence a better Criminal Justice System.

The Criminal Justice System – briefly
dealing with lawbreakers cont’d

• The Process of Justice
• From initial contact, through post-release

• Crime committed – investigation
• Police make arrest based on probable cause
• Booking (custody) fingerprinting and investigation
• Grand jury hands down its indictment
• Arraignment: formal charges & rights read to defendant
• Bail or detention
• Plea bargaining
• Trial process/adjudication
• Sentencing/disposition
• Appeals
• Correctional treatment
• Release
• Post release/aftercare. if early release on parole.



Applying theory
Interactionist view of crime

• The moral entrepreneurs define crime: the deviant is one to whom
the label has been successfully applied. – Howard Becker

Consensus View of Law and Crime

• Lawmaking is an accommodation of interests in a society.

• Lawmaking is to produce a system of laws and enforcement to which
everybody basically subscribes.

• Certain acts are deemed so threatening to the society’s survival that
they are designated as crime.



Conflict View of Law and Crime

• The law expresses the values of the ruling class.

• The criminal justice system is a means of controlling the classes that
have not power.

• Conflict theorists claim that a struggle for power is a far more basic
feature of human existence than is consensus.

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