Chat with us, powered by LiveChat this is due in 7 hours and not hard. Maybe half page Re | Coms Paper
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this is due in 7 hours and not hard. Maybe half page

Read chapter 2 in attachment and do the following: 

 Give one example of how you would apply your understanding of ‘theories of development’ to Physical and Cognitive interactions with infants and toddlers. Be specific in your example, giving a ‘real life’ scenario including at least two (2) meaningful quotes/references to your text to support your answer. 

Half page should be ok. 

No cover page and no reference needed

01010_FM_rev02.indd 4 9/25/15 3:33 PM

Terri Jo Swim
Indiana University–Purdue University

Ninth Edition

Infants and Toddlers

Caregiving and responsive CurriCulum development

Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States

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© 2017, 2014 Cengage Learning

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Printed in the United States of America
Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2015

Infants and Toddlers: Caregiving and
Responsive Curriculum Development,
Ninth Edition
Terri Jo Swim

Product Director: Marta Lee-Perriard

Product Manager: Mark Kerr

Content Developer: Kassi Radomski

Marketing Manager: Christine Sosa

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WCN: 02-200-203

Brief Contents

Chapter 1 Taking a Developmental Perspective 1

Chapter 2 Physical and Cognitive/Language Development 22

Chapter 3 Social and Emotional Development 49

Chapter 4 Attachment and the Three As 84

Chapter 5 Effective Preparation and Tools 98

pa r t o n e Understanding the Foundations of Professional Education 1

pa r t t w o Establishing a Positive Learning Environment 124

Chapter 6 Building Relationships and Guiding Behaviors 124

Chapter 7 Supportive Communication with Families and Colleagues 148

Chapter 8 The Indoor and Outdoor Learning Environments 175

Chapter 9 Designing the Curriculum 211

pa r t t h r e e Developing Responsive Curriculum 240

Chapter 10 Early Intervention 240

Chapter 11 Teaching Children Birth to Twelve Months 261

Chapter 12 Teaching Children Twelve to Twenty-Four Months 295

Chapter 13 Teaching Children Twenty-Four to Thirty-Six Months 318

Chapter 14 Developmentally Appropriate Content 343

appENdix a Tools for Observing and Recording 378

appENdix B Standards for Infant/Toddler Caregivers 402

appENdix C Board Books 408

appENdix d Picture Books 413

References 419

Glossary 452

Index 459

iii

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Contents

Chapter 1 Taking a Developmental
Perspective 1
1-1 Developmental Areas 3

1-2 Theories of Child Development 5
Spotlight on Research: Essential Life Skills for Infants 8

1-2a Unique Patterns of Development 9
READING CHECKPOINT 10

1-3 Current Trends in Development and
Education 10
1-3a Microsystem Trends 11
1-3b Mesosystem Trends 15
Family and Community Connection 16

1-3c Exosystem Trends 16
Spotlight on Organizations: WestEd’s Program for
Infant/Toddler Care 17

1-3d Macrosystem Trends 17

1-4 Valuing Cultural Diversity 19
READING CHECKPOINT 20

Summary 20
CaSE Study 21
additioNaL rESourCES 21

Chapter 2 Physical and Cognitive/
Language Development 22
2-1 Differences between Development

and Learning 23

2-2 Patterns of Physical Development 24
2-2a Brain Development 24
Family and Community Connection 27

Spotlight on Shaken Baby Syndrome: Causes and Effects 28

2-2b Physical Growth 28
2-2c Hearing and Vision Development 29
Spotlight on Research: Vision in Infants and Toddlers 30

2-2d Motor Development 30
READING CHECKPOINT 32

2-3 Patterns of Cognitive and Language
Development 33
2-3a Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Theory of Reasoning 33
2-3b Cognitive Development: Vygotsky’s Sociocultural

Theory 39
2-3c Language Development 42
READING CHECKPOINT 46

Summary 46
CaSE Study 47
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 48
additioNaL rESourCES 48

Chapter 3 Social and Emotional
Development 49
3-1 Patterns of Emotional Development 50

3-1a Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory 51
3-1b Separate and Together 53
3-1c Temperament 55
3-1d Emotional Intelligence and the Brain 58
Spotlight on Effortful Control: What Is It and Why
Is Important? 64

READING CHECKPOINT 68

3-2 Patterns of Social Development 68
3-2a Attachment Theory 68
Spotlight on Research: Father-Child Interactions and
Developmental Outcomes 73

3-2b Relationships with Peers 74
3-2c Self-Esteem 76
3-2d Prosocial Behaviors 78
Family and Community Connection 79

READING CHECKPOINT 81

Summary 81
CaSE Study 81
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 82
additioNaL rESourCES 83

pa r t o n e Understanding the Foundations of Professional Education 1

Preface xi

About the Author xvii

Acknowledgments xviii

v

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

pa r t t w o Establishing a Positive Learning Environment 124

Chapter 4 Attachment and the
Three As 84
4-1 The Attachment Debate and the Roles of

Caregivers 85
READING CHECKPOINT 88

4-2 The Three As: Attention, Approval,
and Attunement 88
Spotlight on Research: Infant Persistence 89

4-2a Attention 89
Family and Community Connection 91

4-2b Approval 91
4-2c Attunement 92
READING CHECKPOINT 95

Summary 95
CaSE Study 96
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 96
additioNaL rESourCES 97

Chapter 5 Effective Preparation
and Tools 98
5-1 Characteristics of a Competent Early

Childhood Educator 99
5-1a Physically and Mentally Healthy 99
5-1b Positive Self-Image 99
5-1c Caring and Respectful 100

5-2 Acquiring Professional Knowledge, Skills, and
Dispositions 100
5-2a Knowledge about Children and Families 101

5-2b Knowledge about Early Child Care
and Education 101

5-2c Knowledge about Partnerships 103
5-2d Knowledge about Advocacy 103
5-2e Professional Skills 104
5-2f Professional Dispositions 104
READING CHECKPOINT 105

5-3 Professional Preparation of the Early
Childhood Educator 105
Spotlight on Organization: World Association for Infant
Mental Health 106

5-3a Impact of Teacher Education on
Quality of Care and Education 106

Family and Community Connection 109

READING CHECKPOINT 110

5-4 Observing Young Children to Make
Educational Decisions 110
5-4a Observe and Record 110
5-4b Tools for Observing and Recording 112
5-4c Analysis 119
Spotlight on Research: Culturally Appropriate
Assessment 120

5-4d Using the Data 121
READING CHECKPOINT 121

Summary 121
CaSE Study 122
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 122
additioNaL rESourCES 123

Chapter 6 Building Relationships
and Guiding Behaviors 124
6-1 Reggio Emilia Approach

to Infant-Toddler Education 125
6-1a Philosophy 126
6-1b Image of the Child 126
6-1c Inserimento 128
READING CHECKPOINT 129

6-2 A Developmental View of Discipline 129
6-2a Mental Models 130
Family and Community Connection 131

READING CHECKPOINT 132

6-3 Strategies for Communicating about
Emotions 133
6-3a Labeling Expressed Emotions 134

6-3b Teaching Emotional Regulation 136
Spotlight on Research: Infants and Divorce 137

READING CHECKPOINT 139

6-4 Self-Regulation as a Foundation for
Perspective-Taking 139
6-4a Setting Limits 141
6-4b Establishing Consequences 142
6-4c Providing Choices 142
6-4d Redirecting Actions 143
6-4e Solving Problems 144
READING CHECKPOINT 145

Summary 145
CaSE Study 146
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 146
additioNaL rESourCES 147

ContentSvi

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 7 Supportive Communication
with Families and Colleagues 148
7-1 Skills for Effective Communication 150

7-1a Rapport Building 150
7-1b I Statements versus You Statements 151
7-1c Active Listening: The “How” in Communication 151
READING CHECKPOINT 153

7-2 Communications with Families 153
7-2a Using Active Listening with Families 153
Spotlight on Organization: Child Care Resource
and Referral Agencies 155

7-2b Partnering with Families 159
7-2c Family Education 160
7-2d Supporting Relationships between Families 160
7-2e Family-Caregiver Conferences 161
7-2f Home Visits 163
READING CHECKPOINT 163

7-3 Family Situations Requiring
Additional Support 164
7-3a Grandparents as Parents 164
7-3b At-Risk Families and Children 164
Family and Community Connections 165

Spotlight on Research: Prolonged Separations for
Young Children: Parental Incarceration and Military
Deployment 166

7-3c Teenage Parents 169
READING CHECKPOINT 170

7-4 Communicating with Colleagues 170
7-4a Collaborating with Colleagues 171
7-4b Supporting Colleagues 172
7-4c Making Decisions 172
READING CHECKPOINT 172

Summary 173
CaSE Study 173
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 174
additioNaL rESourCES 174

Chapter 8 The Indoor and Outdoor
Learning Environments 175
8-1 The Teacher’s Perspective 177

8-1a Learning Centers 177
8-1b  Real Objects versus Open-Ended Materials 178
8-1c  Calm, Safe Learning Environment 180
Spotlight on Research: Rough and Tumble Play 182

8-1d  Basic Needs 183
READING CHECKPOINT 184

8-2 The Child’s Perspective 184
8-2a  Transparency 185

8-2b Flexibility 186
8-2c Relationships 187
8-2d Identity 188
8-2e Movement 188
8-2f Documentation 189
8-2g Senses 190
8-2h Representation 191
8-2i Independence 191
8-2j Discovery 191
READING CHECKPOINT 192

8-3 Society’s Perspective 193
8-3a Environmental Changes for the Classroom 193
Family and Community Connections 194

8-3b Curricular Changes 194
8-3c Partnerships and Advocacy 195
READING CHECKPOINT 196

8-4 Selecting Equipment and Materials 197
8-4a  Age-Appropriate Materials 199
8-4b Homemade Materials 201
READING CHECKPOINT 201

8-5 Protecting Children’s Health
and Safety 201
8-5a Emergency Procedures 202
8-5b Immunization Schedule 202
8-5c Signs and Symptoms of Possible

Severe Illness 202
8-5d First Aid 203
8-5e Universal Precautions 204
8-5f Playground Safety 206
READING CHECKPOINT 207

Summary 207
CaSE Study 208
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 209
additioNaL rESourCES 210

Chapter 9 Designing the Curriculum 211
9-1 Influences on the Curriculum 212

9-1a Influences from Cultural Expectations 213
9-1b Influences from the Care Setting 216
9-1c Influences from the Child 219
READING CHECKPOINT 219

9-2 Routine Care Times 220
9-2a Flexible Schedule 220
Spotlight on SIDS: Sudden Infant Death
Syndrome (SIDS) 221

Spotlight on Dental Health: Access to
Dental Care 225

READING CHECKPOINT 229

viiContentS

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

9-3 Planned Learning Experiences 229
9-3a Daily Plans 230
Family and Community Connections 232

9-3b Weekly Plans 232
Spotlight on Research: Infant Brain Development 233

READING CHECKPOINT 237

Summary 237
CaSE Study 238
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 238
additioNaL rESourCES 239

pa r t t h r e e Developing Responsive Curriculum 240

Chapter 10 Early Intervention 240
CaSE Study 241

10-1 What Is Early Intervention? 241
Spotlight on Terminology: Talking about Early
Intervention 242

Spotlight on Research: Infant Mental Health 243

10-2 Types and Tiers of Early Intervention 244

10-3 From Special Needs to Special Rights 247

10-4 The Need for Family Capacity-Building 248
Spotlight on Research: Early Intervention and Building
Collaborative Partnerships 249

Family and Community Connections 250

READING CHECKPOINT 250

10-5 The Evaluation and Assessment
Process 250
10-5a The Role of Teachers 250
10-5b The Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) 251
10-5c Natural Environments 252

10-6 Characteristics and Care of Children with
Special Rights 253
10-6a Physical and Cognitive Development 253
10-6b Social and Emotional Development 255
READING CHECKPOINT 257

Summary 257
CaSE Study 258
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 259
additioNaL rESourCES 260

Chapter 11 Teaching Children Birth
to Twelve Months 261

CaSE Study 262

11-1 Materials 262
11-1a Types of Materials 263

11-2 Caregiver Strategies to Enhance
Development 263
Spotlight on Organizations: Zero to Three 265

11-2a Physical Development 265

Spotlight on Research: Breast-Feeding and Later
Development 273

READING CHECKPOINT 275

11-2b Cognitive Development 275
Family and Community Connection 277

Spotlight on Practice: Voices from the Field 279

11-2c Language Development 280
11-2d Emotional Development 283
11-2e Social Development 287
Spotlight on Research: Attachment to Objects 289

READING CHECKPOINT 292

Summary 292
CaSE Study 293
proFESSioNaL rESourCE doWNLoad ❯❯ LESSoN
pLaN 293
additioNaL rESourCES 294

Chapter 12 Teaching Children Twelve
to Twenty-Four Months 295

CaSE Study 296

12-1 Materials 296
Spotlight on Practice: Voices from the Field 298

12-1a Types of Materials 298

12-2 Caregiver Strategies to Enhance
Development 298
12-2a Physical Development 298
READING CHECKPOINT 299

12-2b Cognitive Development 299
Spotlight on Organizations: National Association for
the Education of Young Children 302

12-2c Language Development 303
READING CHECKPOINT 306

12-2d Emotional Development 306
Family and Community Connections 308

READING CHECKPOINT 311

12-2e Social Development 311
Spotlight on Research: Peer Interactions of Young
Toddlers 312

READING CHECKPOINT 315

ContentSviii

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Summary 315
caSe Study 315
PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ LeSSON
PLaN 316
addItIONaL reSOurceS 317

Chapter 13 Teaching Children Twenty-
Four to Thirty-Six Months 318

caSe Study 319

13-1 Materials 319
13-1a Types of Materials 319
13-1b Activity Ideas 321

13-2 Caregiver Strategies to Enhance
Development 322
13-2a Physical Development 322
13-2b Cognitive Development 324
Spotlight on Practice: Voices from the Field 325

13-2c Language Development 326
Spotlight on Research: Adult Depression and Infant
Cognitive Development 328

Family and Community Connections 330

READING CHECKPOINT 331

13-2d Emotional Development 331
13-2e Social Development 335
Spotlight on Research: Conflicts with Peers 336

READING CHECKPOINT 340

Summary 340
caSe Study 341
PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ LeSSON
PLaN 341
addItIONaL reSOurceS 342

Chapter 14 Developmentally Appropriate
Content 343

caSe Study 344

14-1 Big Ideas That Guide Work 344
Family and Community Connections 345

14-2 Central Concepts of the
Content Areas 345
14-2a Emergent Literacy 346
Spotlight on Practice: Voices from the Field 349

READING CHECKPOINT 355

14-2b Mathematics 356
Spotlight on Practice: Voices from the Field 360

14-2c Fine Arts 360
14-2d Social Studies 363
14-2e Science 366
Spotlight on Research: Toddlers and Media 367

READING CHECKPOINT 370

14-3 Teaching with Content Learning
in Mind 370
Spotlight on Curriculum: High-Quality
Program Models 373

Closing Note 374
READING CHECKPOINT 375

Summary 375
caSe Study 376
PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ LeSSON
PLaN 376
addItIONaL reSOurceS 377

appendix a Tools for Observing
and Recording 378
PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ Developmental
Milestones (Combination of Checklist and Rating
Scale) 379

Approximately Birth to Four Months of Age 379
Approximately Four to Eight Months of Age 382
Approximately Eight to Twelve Months of Age 385
Approximately Twelve to Eighteen Months of Age 387
Approximately Eighteen to Twenty-Four Months of Age 389
Approximately Twenty-Four to Thirty Months of Age 392
Approximately Thirty to Thirty-Six Months of Age 394

PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ Running Record 396

PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ Anecdotal
Record 397

PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ Indoor Safety
Checklist 398

PrOFeSSIONaL reSOurce dOWNLOad ❯❯ Playground Safety
Checklist 400

appendix B Standards for Infant/Toddler
Caregivers 402

Appendix Overview 402
CDA Competency Standards for Infant/Toddler
Caregivers in Center-Based Programs 402

NAEYC Standards for Early Childhood Professional
Preparation 405

NAEYC Standards for Early Childhood Professional
Preparation Programs 405

Early Childhood Field Experiences 407

appendix C Board Books 408
Alphabet 408

Animals/Pets 408

Bedtime 409

Colors and Shapes 409

Family 409

Friendship/Teamwork 410

Language/Vocabulary 410

Numbers/Counting 410

ixContents

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Play/Adventure 411

Self-Awareness/-Emotions 411

Sign Language 412

Miscellaneous 412

appendix d Picture Books 413
Alphabet 413

Animals/Pets 413

Bedtime 414

Behavior/Manners 414

Counting/Shapes 415

Family 415

Friendship/Teamwork 416

Language/Vocabulary/Poetry 416

Play/Adventure 417

Self-Awareness/Emotions 418

References 419

Glossary 452

Index 459

ContentSx

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

This revised, expanded, and updated edition was developed with the inten-
tion of guiding the reader through the acquisition of skills necessary to pro-
vide high-quality care for infants and toddlers in any educational setting.
Information based on current theories and research, as well as standards for
infant-toddler teacher preparation, is reflected throughout the book. The ninth
edition’s new subtitle, Caregiving and Responsive Curriculum Development,
better reflects the book’s goal of providing appropriate caregiving and edu-
cational techniques, along with curriculum ideas, for groups of very young
children and for individual children within those groups. Early childhood
educators, administrators, advocates, and parents will find practical informa-
tion that can be put to immediate use to promote the highest quality care and
education possible for all children, birth to age 3.

Major Revisions in the Ninth Edition
As with previous editions, Infants and Toddlers: Caregiving and Respon-
sive Curriculum Development, Ninth Edition, strives to bridge the gap
between theory and practice. As scholar-practitioners, teachers need to
use theory to inform their practice and in turn use their practice to inform
theoretical understanding. Building from the strong foundation of previ-
ous editions, the text has been updated and thoroughly revised. Although
notable differences set this edition apart from the previous edition, points
of continuity remain. For example, in this ninth edition, the child con-
tinues to be at the center of care and education. Defining infants and tod-
dlers as engaging, decision-making forces within their environments sets a
tone of excitement and enthusiasm. No longer can we afford to agree with
the description of toddlerhood as the “terrible twos.” Rather, we need to
embrace the image of the child as capable, competent, and creative. Doing
so opens a number of educational options that were unavailable previously.

Results of research on brain structures, functions, and development as
well as social and emotional development have been expanded as founda-
tions for this edition. For example, links among cortisol levels, parenting
behaviors, and memory skills for very young children are investigated. In
addition, incorporating key components of the high-quality infant-toddler
and preschool programs in Reggio Emilia, Italy, has improved our under-
standing of what developmentally appropriate practice looks like in action.
Respecting children; designing effective physical, social, and intellectual
environments; building partnerships with families; and planning individu-
ally appropriate curricula are discussed throughout this edition.

Major content revisions in this edition also include the following:

●● NEW Chapter 10, Early Intervention. This chapter takes an in-depth
look at early intervention. It was created based on reviewer feedback

Preface

xi

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

that indicated a need for a clearer focus on the care of and interventions
for infants and toddlers with special rights. Chapter 10 now highlights
the importance of collaboration among family members, caregivers,
and intervention specialists.

●● NEW Chapter 14, Developmentally Appropriate Content. Given the
national preoccupation with school readiness, a new chapter, Develop-
mentally Appropriate Content (Chapter 14), is now available. Older tod-
dlers are ready to explore and experience fine arts, science, mathematics,
literacy, and social studies. However, much guidance is provided on how
to do this in a way that complements and heightens young children’s
curiosity. In other words, these content areas must be taught through
engaging, integrated projects, rather than in terms of isolated facts.

●● NEW combined chapters. In response to reviewer feedback, the chap-
ters that discuss infant and toddler development have been combined
to eliminate repetition of content. So Chapters 10, 11, and 12 in the
eighth edition, which spanned birth to 12 months, are now covered in
Chapter 11, Teaching Children Birth to Twelve Months. The content in
Chapters 13 and 14 in the eighth edition, which covered children from
12 to 24 months, now appears in the ninth edition’s Chapter 12, Teach-
ing Children Twelve to Twenty-Four Months. Finally, the eighth edition
content in Chapters 15 and 16 now appears in Chapter 13, Teaching
Children Twenty-Four to Thirty-Six Months, in the ninth edition.

●● NEW research results. Results of new research and scholarly articles
have been incorporated into each chapter. For example, new research
on social and emotional development can be found in Chapter 3, Social
and Emotional Development; current thoughts about how aggression
may be normative behavior for toddlers is in Chapter 6, Building Rela-
tionships and Guiding Behaviors; and new information on compliance
for supporting health and safety guidelines can be found in Chapter 8,
The Indoor and Outdoor Learning Environments.

●● NEW concept coverage. Chapter 3 has a new Spotlight on Research box
that focuses on Effortful Control, a newer …

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